Semiconductor FAQ Test

  • All
  • Discrete IGBT
  • IGBT Module
  • Pressure Sensor
  • Power MOSFET
  • Rectifier Diode
  • SiC Device
  • Data Sheet
  • Description of Terms
  • Driver Design
  • Others
  • Reliability
  • Simulator
  • Thermal Design
  • Usage
Expand All | Collapse All
  • 1. What is an IGBT?
     

    It stands for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. It is a voltage-controlled device that has an insulated gate with an oxide insulating film. The gate structure is similar to a MOSFET. It combines the positive characteristics of a MOSFET and bipolar transistor. It is an indispensable component in a power conversion circuit for high-voltage and large-current applications. It is mainly used in consumer equipment such as air conditioners (a/c) or microwave ovens, industrial equipment such as elevators, and inverters for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV).

  • 2. Why is FWD required?
     

    Conventional IGBT elements are not capable of blocking a reverse-withstand voltage. When an inverter circuit is used to drive an inductive load like in a motor, the load current will continue flowing in the reverse direction (emitter to collector) at the time of switching. This may damage the IGBT. The IGBT is protected by a commutating load current in a diode (freewheeling diode: FWD) connected inversely in parallel.

  • 3. What is the difference between an IGBT and a MOSFET?
     

    An IGBT is a device that has a basic structure of a P-layer added to the drain side of a MOSFET. An IGBT is suited for large-current and high withstand-voltage applications. A MOSFET is suited for small-capacity and high-speed switching applications.

  • 4. What is a RB-IGBT?
     

    It stands for Reverse Blocking Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. Reverse-parallel connection of RB-IGBT enables both way switching. It is incorporated in AT-NPC (Advanced T-type Neutral Point Clamped) 3-level inverters, to increase the power conversion efficiency because there are less current passing elements.

  • 5. What does SiC mean?
     

    It stands for Silicon Carbide. SiC has a wider bandgap width compared to silicon, and is expected to become the next-generation power device material for high-temperature operation, high-speed switching, low power-loss, and high withstand-voltage applications.

  • 6. What is a module?
     

    A module is a package which contains several power semiconductor devices that form a bridge circuit, etc. A modul provides thermal and electrical contact as well as the electrical insulation maintained between the heat-radiation surface and the electric part. For this reason multiple modules can be placed on the same heat sink. Compared to setups that operate with multiple discrete products, the module can handle a larger current and is superior because it is small, lightweight, and easy to assemble.

  • 7. What does PIM mean?
     

    It stands for Power Integrated Module. A PIM is a module that is composed of a 3-phase rectifier circuit, 3-phase inverter circuit, and brake circuit. It is also called CIB (Converter Inverter Brake).

  • 8. What does IPM mean?
     

    It stands for Intelligent Power Module. An IPM is a module product, based on a 3-phase inverter circuit with a control IC that contains a gate driving circuit and other protection circuits. This product makes it easier to design peripheral circuits than conventional IGBT modules with external driver circuits. The following configurations are possible: 7in1 with a brake circuit, and 6in1 without brake circuit.

  • 9. What is a SiC hybrid module?
     

    This is a product that uses a SiC-SBD (Shottky Barrier Diode) as FWD component, with a combination of Si-IGBT. This combination reduces the losses by approximately 25% in comparison with conventional all-silicon chip products. SiC devices are the focus of attention as next-generation semiconductors that offer superior characteristics in areas such as high withstand-voltage, high-temperature, and high-frequency operations.

  • 10. What is the difference between PIM and IPM?
     

    PIM is a product that integrates a 3-phase converter circuit, brake circuit, and 3-phase inverter circuit into a single module. This leads to a compact main circuit design. IPM, on the other hand, offers an advantage of simple peripheral circuit designing, by use of its built-in control IC. This IC contains gate driving and protection circuits, in addition to brake and inverter circuits.

  • 11. What is the V-series of IGBT?
     

    This product series uses our company's 6th-generation IGBT chip set. This chip generation uses a trench gate structure that forms a three-dimensional gate over the silicon surface. It also contains a field stop structure (FS structure) to improve the characteristic of the element withstand voltage. These technologies made it possible to use a thinner silicon wafer which leads to a lower on-voltage, reduced switching losses, and improved switching speed control, compared to Fuji's 5th generation IGBT (U-series IGBT).

  • 12. How do I read IGBT module model types?
     

    Refer to "Part numbers" in the Semiconductors General Catalog.

  • 13. What is the meaning of each item in the IGBT data sheet?
     

    Refer to the description of terms in Application Manual Chapter 2-1.

  • 14. How do I select a module by the rated parameters?
     

    Regarding voltage and current rating, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-1 on "how to select an IGBT module". Before use, please verify that the voltage, current, temperature, and other factors stay within the maximum rating range. For support please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 15. Can the voltage exceed IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) for a short time?
     

    Maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) is specified as the maximum rating in the relevant specifications. The voltage should never exceed this value.

  • 16. Is it always expedient to use the gate resistance (RG) value indicated in the data sheet?
     

    The optimum gate resistance value (RG) varies depending on the circuit configuration or operating environment used. The data sheet describes the recommended resistance value to minimize switching loss. Determine an appropriate gate resistance (RG) after considering the relevant switching loss, EMC/EMI, surge voltage, and unexpected characteristics such as vibration, without deviating from the descriptions contained in the data sheet.

  • 17. How should the gate resistance (RG) be determined?
     

    The gate resistance value (RG) greatly impacts dv/dt, radiation noise, voltage/current surge, and switching loss. Please comprehensively determine an appropriate value that corresponds to the target figure of your actual design. As for reference, a recommended turn-on resistance value (RG(on)) is twice or higher than that of the standard value from datasheet, and a recommended turn-off resistance value (RG(off)) is one to two times that of the standard value.

  • 18. How can the surge voltage be reduced?
     

    A surge voltage is generated by high di/dt, and wiring inductance outside the module, at the time of switching (L*di/dt). Some of the ways to suppress this problem are as follows:
    (1) Add a protective circuit
    (2) Reduce di/dt by adjusting RG or -VGE
    (3) Reduce inductance by making the main circuit wiring thicker and shorter, and using a copper bar and parallel flat wiring
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 19. What ohm value is set for internal gate resistance (RG) in an IGBT module?
     

    "Refer to the data sheet where internal gate resistance (RG) values for the 6th-generation V-series and 7th-generation X-series IGBT module are described.
    Please contact us with a model type number if it is not shown in the 6th-generation data sheet or if it is a product prior to the 6th-generation (U-series, S-series)."

  • 20. What are the points we need to be aware of when determining the gate resistance (RG)?
     

    A larger gate resistance (RG) will increase switching loss, and make it more prone to generating an arm short circuit due to an insufficient dead-time. A smaller gate resistance (RG)may cause a sudden surge voltage. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapters 2-2.2 and 7-1.3.

  • 21. Which terminal should be used to measure the collector-emitter voltage (VCE) when switching?
     

    Please measure at the main terminal of the product. If a terminal is separately specified for measurement in the data sheet, please use the specified terminal.

  • 22. What is the reason for applying reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) between the gate and emitter?
     

    An insufficient reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) between the gate and emitter may cause the IGBT to mis-fire, leading to a short-circuit current. If the current is cut off the surge voltage and the generated loss may damage the product. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapters 4-3.3 and 7-1.2.

  • 23. Can application of a reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) on a gate-to-emitter be exempted in a case where only an FWD is used without an opposite IGBT, such as in a chopper circuit?
     

    Please apply a reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) of -5 V or higher (-15 V recommended; max. -20 V) between the gate and emitter in the IGBT that is not being used. An insufficient reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) may cause the IGBT to misfire due to dV/dt at the time of reverse-recovery of the FWD, resulting in damage.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-10.

  • 24. What precautions need to be considered when designing an IGBT drive circuit?
     

    Refer to Application Manual Chapter 7-5. It provides precautions regarding the photo-coupler's noise capability, wiring between the drive circuit and IGBT, and gate overvoltage protection.

  • 25. What is the lowest operation temperature for an IGBT module?
     

    The minimum temperature is specified by the storage temperature (Tstg). Please consider that there will be a reduced device withstand voltage and peripheral component (capacitor, control circuit) characteristics under low temperature before use.

  • 26. Can an IPM operate at -40oC?
     

    Our IPM is designed with a lowest guaranteed operating temperature of Tc=-20oC. Operation below this temperature has not been evaluated, and any use below -20oC will void your warranty. At such temperature, there are concerns about possible malfunctions due to a lower device withstand voltage or reduced capacity of the used capacitor.

  • 27. Is there a temperature dependency in the IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES)?
     

    A lower temperature reduces the IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES). The data sheet describes the maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) under the condition of Tj=25oC. Refer to the technical information describing temperature dependency included in the technical documents under Design Support.

  • 28. How do I calculate IGBT losses?
     

    Fuji provides a free software to calculate the IGBT losses. The following steps can be followed to obtain the figure.
    (1) Download our Loss Simulator
    (2) Launch our Loss Simulator
    (3) Enter data on the chip series, circuit configuration, voltage rating, and current rating. Select your model type. Click ""Next""
    (4) Enter data on the circuit, PWM modulation scheme, and calculation conditions. Click ""Calculate""
    (5) The calculation result will be displayed
    For details, refer to the user manual.

  • 29. What functions do the IGBT Simulator have?
     

    The IGBT Simulator can estimate the power loss and temperature for a 3-phase 2-level inverter circuit, 3-phase 3-level inverter circuit, and chopper circuit of an IGBT and FWD. It can also calculate loss and temperature under variable inverter operation conditions such as output current and switching frequency. Changes in loss and temperature when the load continuously fluctuates, can also be obtained.

  • 30. What is the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature is the temperature at joints on a semiconductor chip.

  • 31. What is the case temperature (Tc)?
     

    Case temperature (Tc) is the temperature on the module copper base surface right under a semiconductor chip where the temperature is the highest.

  • 32. What is the acceptable range of case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    Refer to the "Maximum Ratings: Case temperature" section in the data sheet.

  • 33. How do I estimate the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature can be estimated based on generated losses and thermal resistance Rth(j-c). For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-2.1.
    We provide a free software to calculate IGBT's temperature at 2-level inverter, 3-level inverter, and chopper circuits. This software can be downloaded here.

  • 34. What is the difference between Tj(max) and Tj(op)?
     

    The maximum allowable temperature for the chip during conventional continuous operation is specified in Tj(op). Please ensure the maximum chip temperature stays at or under Tj(op) during conventional continuous operation. The maximum allowable temperature for a chip during short-term overload or abnormal operation is specified inTj(max).

  • 35. How do I measure the case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    The following illustrates an example of how to measure case temperature (Tc).
    One method is to make a groove on a copper base or a heat sink of an IGBT module to embed a thermocouple. Please fill the groove with highly thermally conductive paste to secure the thermocouple and attain even thermal diffusion.

  • 36. Where are the chips located internally?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 37. Can we apply an IGBT module directly to a heat sink?
     

    No, prior to using an IGBT module, please apply thermal grease (compound) on the surface of a heat sink and module before layering. This will reduce the contact thermal resistance. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 38. What are the recommended thermal conductivity and thickness for thermal grease?
     

    Recommended values are 0.92 W/m·K or higher for thermal conductivity, and approximately 100 μm thick after spreading thermal grease. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 39. Is there a recommended thermal grease that should be used?
     

    Refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 for details.

  • 40. How should thermal grease (compound) be applied on an IGBT module?
     

    Thermal grease can be applied using either a roller or stencil mask. An inappropriate thermal grease thickness will negatively affect heat radiation to the heat sink. We strongly recommend using a stencil mask that enables a uniform thickness to be applied over the back surface of the module. For details on application methods, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction. An optimum outline drawing for each module is also available. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 41. What thermal grease precautions should we be aware of?
     

    While thermal grease promotes thermal conduction to a fin, it has a thermal capacity itself. Applying too much grease will obstruct the heat radiation to fins. At the same time, applying too little will increase the contact thermal resistance because thermal grease will not have good contact in some spots between the fins and module for bonding. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 "Thermal paste application" and technical documents.

  • 42. What range is used for heat sink flatness as a reference?
     

    Guides to flatness values for a heat sink are 50 μm or less for 100 mm between screw mounting locations, and 10 μm or less for surface roughness. An excessive convex warp will cause an insulation breakdown, leading to a critical incident. An excessive concave warp will reduce heat radiation by creating a gap between the product and heat sink, which may lead to thermal destruction.

  • 43. What is a NTC?
     

    NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistor) is an electronic component whose resistance decreases while the temperature increases.

  • 44. Is the temperature Tj represented by the NTC temperature?
     

    They are not the same. When incorporating it in an IGBT module, NTC is positioned far from the chip to ensure insulation. This produces a temperature gap between them although NTC's temperature will follow that of chip's Tj.

  • 45. What is the temperature difference between Tj and NTC temperature?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 46. What is the diode's I2t?
     

    I2t is a Joule-integral for overcurrent allowed within the range that does not result in element destruction. Overcurrent is defined in one cycle at commercially restricted half-waves (50, 60 Hz).

  • 47. What types of power cycle capability are available?
     

    The types of power cycle capability include the ΔTj power cycle (ΔTj-P/C) capability curve and the ΔTc power cycle (ΔTc-P/C) capability curve. We verify device life on two models, therefore please design a product life expectancy within these power cycle capabilities. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 48. How do I calculate the power cycle in cases where there are multiple temperature rise peaks?
     

    In cases where the temperature increases n-times per device operation cycle, we assign a power cycle life expectance count as PC(k=1, 2, 3, ..., n). PC(k) is the power cycle life for the k-th temperature rise. A combined power cycle life expectancy count can be expressed by the formula below.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 49. Which parameters have an impact to IGBT's short-circuit current?
     

    IGBT's short-circuit current is impacted by gate-to-emitter voltage VGE, junction temperature Tj, and switching voltage Vcc. Generally, a short-circuit current increases with a large VGE, low Tj, and large Vcc.

  • 50. How can we determine the dead-time?
     

    To prevent a short-circuit in the upper and lower arms, it is necessary to set an on-off timing delay between the several arms. During this time period both devices are switched off. The dead-time needs to be set so that it is generally longer than the switching time of the IGBT (toff max.).
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 51. How can we confirm the dead-time?
     

    One way to determine the validity of the dead-time setting is to verify the current on the direct current power line during non-loading time.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 52. Does QG show temperature dependence?
     

    There is no dependency.

  • 53. Does Cies show temperature dependence?
     

    There is no dependency.

  • 54. What types of snubber circuit are available?
     

    There are two types of snubber circuits. The first type is implemented between the DC power supply busbars and is called lump snubber. The second type is called individual snubber ciruit and is connected to each IGBT.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 55. How is the capacitor C of the snubber circuit to be determined?
     

    The necessary capacity for a snubber capacitor can be obtained with the following formula.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 56. How do I mount a module?
     

    Refer to IGBT module's Application Manual Chapter 6-3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 57. Can IGBT modules be used in parallel?
     

    Some IGBT module models can be connected in parallel, while other models cannot. Please contact our company or your local distributor.

  • 58. What precautions do I need to be aware of when connecting IGBT modules in parallel?
     

    There are four basic precautions, shown below, when connecting IGBT modules in parallel:
    (1) Current unbalance control during steady operation
    (2) Current unbalance control at the time of switching
    (3) Gate drive circuit
    (4) Derating
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-3.5 and Chapter 8.

  • 59. Where are Fuji semiconductor products manufactured?
     

    The semiconductor products of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. are manufactured at its six sites in Japan (including Matsumoto Factory, Yamanashi Factory, Fuji Electric Power Semiconductor Co., Ltd., and Fuji Electric Tsugaru Semiconductor Co., Ltd.), and three overseas sites (Fuji Electric (ShenZhen) Co., Ltd., Fuji Electric Philippines, Inc., and Fuji Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.).

  • 60. Is there any quality difference between products made in Japan and those made overseas?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. enforces the same quality standard for product management at all locations, regardless of where the manufacturing sites are.

  • 61. Are there any simulation models for the semiconductor products?
     

    A simulation model such as a SPICE model is not available.

  • 62. How do I verify the authenticity of products I have purchased online, etc.?
     

    Product warranty and support are provided if products have been purchased from our distributors or an authorized dealer. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 63. How do I get a sample?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 64. Is it possible to get a product which is not in the catalog? Does Fuji make customized products?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 65. How do I store semiconductor devices?
     

    The desired storage environment has a temperature range of 5 to 35oC, and humidity range of 45% to 75%. Avoid storage under load, and secure a location with little temperature fluctuation. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-8.

  • 66. What do we need to be aware of when soldering an IGBT module?
     

    Avoid soldering under excessive temperature. Soldering condition have to be within specification value. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd or your local distributor. It may result in package degradation.

  • 67. Are there any measures to prevent misfiring by high dv/dt during the reverse recovery of the FWD?
     

    Some of the ways to prevent misfiring of an IGBT are as follows:
    (1) by adding a capacity component CGE to the area between the gate and emitter
    (2) by increasing -VGE
    (3) by increasing gate resistance (RG)
    The effectiveness of these measures will vary depending on the applicable gate circuit, so please verify thoroughly before applying them. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7-1.4.

  • 68. What is the piece of black sponge pinned on the module terminals?
     

    The piece of black sponge is attached for protection. Please keep the sponge on the module at the time of storage.

  • 69. Is there any quick way to determine the quality of IGBT before mounting?
     

    You can verify the IGBT by checking the leakage current between G and E, and C and E, using a transistor curve tracer (CT). Simple failure diagnosis can also be done using a voltage, resistance tester in place of a CT. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-2.

  • 70. What are countermeasures against static electricity when an IGBT module is used?
     

    (1) Discharge any static electricity by grounding through a high-capacity resistor, and use a conductive mat that has been grounded
    (2) Hold the package body without directly touching the IGBT module terminals (especially control terminal)
    (3) Ground tools such as a soldering tip, at an adequately low resistance
    (4) Protect a control terminal using conductive material such as IC foam
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-2.

  • 71. What is EMI?
     

    EMI is an abbreviation of Electro Magnetic Interference. The word describes the negative effect caused on peripheral equipment by an electronic device, and it is also called emission. EMI consists of conductive noise that leaks to a power source, and radiation noise that is emitted as electromagnetic waves. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 72. What is EMS?
     

    EMS is an abbreviation of Electro Magnetic Susceptibility. The word describes an electronic device's capability and performance against surrounding interference, and it is also called immunity. It includes evaluation items such as electromagnetic waves, static electricity, and lightning surge. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 73. How long has Fuji Electric been manufacturing IGBT products?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. began manufacturing IGBTs in 1988, and now has nearly 30 years of history in supplying IGBT products to the market.

  • 74. Is there a lifetime for IGBT modules?
     

    Yes. The main factors impacting the IGBT module's life expectancy are temperature gaps involving the element's junction temperature Tj, and increase and decrease of case temperature Tc. Refer to technical documents describing the relationship of ΔTj and ΔTc with the device life expectancy.

  • 75. How do I read a lot number?
     

    The first digit represents the year of manufacture, the second digit is the month of manufacture, and the remaining 3 to 4 digits are the lot number.

  • 76. How do I handle a terminal when IPM's ALM terminal is not used?
     

    Pull up the ALM terminal to VCC to stabilize electric potential.

  • 77. Where can we obtain an RoHS Certificate of Conformity (CoC)?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 78. Are Fuji semiconductor parts compliant with REACH regulations?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 79. Have Fuji semiconductor parts an UL certification?
     

    Power semiconductor modules of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. have been certified with UL standard 1557, category code QQQX2 (File No. E82988). The relevant model types can be found on the UL website's (http://japan.ul.com/) Online Certifications Directory.

  • 80. How do I handle a terminal when IPM's brake circuit is not used?
     

    Pull up the VinDB terminal to VCC to stabilize electric potential.

  • 81. What is an insulated substrate?
     

    The insulated substrate consists of a ceramic substrate, front-surface copper-foil pattern to create a circuit, and back-surface copper-foil to solder with a copper base. It is designed to electrically insulate between the electric part and the part for thermal dissipation. The ceramic substrate materials used are aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, etc.

  • 82. Is there an upper limit of switching frequency for an IGBT?
     

    The switching frequency (carrier frequency) is not defined in specifications. A higher frequency will increase the switching loss, leading to a problem with the junction temperature. The device will be operable under the absolute maximum rated temperature; a frequency of 15 kHz or less should be used for V-series IGBT module. For a welding device or medical equipment it might be necessary to use switching frequencies of 20 kHz or higher, therefore we recommend a high-speed standard 2in1 module or W-series discrete IBGT.

  • 83. Is there any recommended connector for IPM's control terminal?
     

    Connectors compatible with V-IPM series terminal shapes (by HIROSE ELECTRIC CO., LTD.) are on the market.
    P630: MA49-19S-2.54DSA, MA49-19S-2.54DSA(01)
    P631: MDF7-25S-2.54DSA
    Please contact HIROSE ELECTRIC CO., LTD. to purchase the relevant connector or verify reliability.

  • 84. What type of compatible female terminal (tab terminal) should we choose for a standard package control terminal?
     

    The compatible tab is the 110 series. Please select a tab terminal which has the tab dimensions of 2.8 mm width, and 0.5 mm plate thickness. Relevant products are available on the market from Tyco Electronics Japan G.K., J.S.T. MFG. CO., LTD., and NICHIFU Co., Ltd. Please contact any of these companies for details.

  • 85. What is a press-fit pin?
     

    It is a pin type that allows PCB mounting without soldering. It is used in PIM and 6-Pack products. The time required for the assembly process is reduced as connection is completed by pressing an IGBT module over PCB's through-hole and applying pressure from the base side. Special press and press-in tools are required. We do not sell presses or tools.

  • 86. V-series IPM has VDA and VDN models of the same rating, but what is the difference between them?
     

    VDA and VDN use different material for their insulating substrates, resulting in separate thermal resistance values. The VDA type uses aluminum oxide, while the VDN type uses high heat-radiation material, with approximately 30% less thermal resistance than that of VDA. It is effective when achieving a lower Tj max. or longer ΔTj power cycle life expectancy.

  • 87. What is a bootstrap circuit?
     

    A bootstrap circuit is one that is composed of a control power supply to drive high-side IGBT. It is possible to have a single power supply as it does not require a transformer with multiple secondary windings. Its built-in bootstrap resistance and bootstrap diode (BSD) gives a small IPM to configure a bootstrap circuit simply by adding an external bootstrap capacitor.

  • 88. Is the IPM's input control signal high to switch the IGBT to on?
     

    IPM V-series input control signal is IGBT-on when set at Low. A small IPM's input control signal is IGBT-on when set at High.

  • 89. What factors determine the value of thermal resistance Rth(j-c)?
     

    The thermal resistance value may differ even in the same rating, when comparing different families of products made by Fuji Electric or other companies. A low thermal resistance in a certain product may be due to a larger semiconductor chip size, or the use of a ceramic insulating substrate with good thermal conductivity.

  • 90. The parameter for thermal resistance given in the specification is described as ( per 1 device). What does it mean?
     

    1 device represents a value per arm (IGBT+FWD). Some models connect multiple chips per arm in parallel. This parallel-chip configuration is counted as one chip.

  • 91. What is the meaning of the given gate resistance RG value in the specification? Does this mean external resistance?
     

    It represents an external resistance. It excludes the module's built-in RG(int).

  • 92. What is RBSOA?
     

    RBSOA is an abbreviation of Reverse Bias Safety Operating Area. The data sheet contains a characteristic graph describing double the rated voltage and rated current under the condition of maximum continuous operation temperature Tj(op). It illustrates a range of VCE and IC where safe operation is maintained when IGBT is turning off. The operation can be repeated within the RBSOA range.

  • 93. What is SCSOA?
     

    SCSOA is an abbreviation of Short Circuit Safety Operating Area. During an incident with an inverter device, such as a load short-circuit, arm short-circuit, or ground fault, a current that is several times higher than the rated current flows in the IGBT. SCSOA is provided to protect the IGBT even during these instances. SCSOA has different characteristics depending on the generation or withstand voltage of IGBT. Refer to the technical documents of individual models.

  • 94. Is there ΔTc power cycle curve?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 95. What types of noise are generated at an inverter unit that has a power semiconductor device built in?
     

    There are two types of noise: conductive noise (noise terminal voltage) and radiation noise. Conductive noise propagates over a conductor or earth wire in a main circuit. It is divided into two groups: normal mode and common mode. Radiation noise is generated within a device and emitted into the air because the device wiring or casing works as an antenna. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 96. How can we reduce conductive noise?
     

    "Conductive noise can be reduced through methods such as adding an LC filter on the AC power side, adding a ferrite core, or adjusting the gate resistance to suppress dv/dt at the time of switching.
    For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10."

  • 97. How can we reduce radiation noise?
     

    Radiation noise can be reduced through methods such as reducing the loop current area where noise is generated, or adjusting the gate resistance. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 98. Can I get a drawing of the internal chip layout to measure the case temperature TC?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 99. How works a stencil mask to apply thermal compound and can I purchase it from Fuji?
     

    A stencil mask is a 200 μm-thick, metal plate with multiple holes punched in the compound application area. A compound can be applied with a uniform thickness of 100 μm when clamping the stencil to a heat sink after application. We do not sell stencil masks but we can provide a mask drawing that corresponds to the relevant package.

  • 100. What happens to IGBT modules in a case where an application exceeds the ΔTj power cycle capability?
     

    It will cause a separation of aluminum wire, or a crack in the solder under the chip. Thermal destruction will result from the current concentrating on the relevant part of the chip, or increased thermal resistance.

  • 101. Where is a NTC mounted in a module?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 1. What is an IGBT?
     

    It stands for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. It is a voltage-controlled device that has an insulated gate with an oxide insulating film. The gate structure is similar to a MOSFET. It combines the positive characteristics of a MOSFET and bipolar transistor. It is an indispensable component in a power conversion circuit for high-voltage and large-current applications. It is mainly used in consumer equipment such as air conditioners (a/c) or microwave ovens, industrial equipment such as elevators, and inverters for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV).

  • 2. Why is FWD required?
     

    Conventional IGBT elements are not capable of blocking a reverse-withstand voltage. When an inverter circuit is used to drive an inductive load like in a motor, the load current will continue flowing in the reverse direction (emitter to collector) at the time of switching. This may damage the IGBT. The IGBT is protected by a commutating load current in a diode (freewheeling diode: FWD) connected inversely in parallel.

  • 3. What is a RB-IGBT?
     

    It stands for Reverse Blocking Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. Reverse-parallel connection of RB-IGBT enables both way switching. It is incorporated in AT-NPC (Advanced T-type Neutral Point Clamped) 3-level inverters, to increase the power conversion efficiency because there are less current passing elements.

  • 4. How do I read IGBT module model types?
     

    Refer to "Part numbers" in the Semiconductors General Catalog.

  • 5. Can the voltage exceed IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) for a short time?
     

    Maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) is specified as the maximum rating in the relevant specifications. The voltage should never exceed this value.

  • 6. What is the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature is the temperature at joints on a semiconductor chip.

  • 7. What is the case temperature (Tc)?
     

    Case temperature (Tc) is the temperature on the module copper base surface right under a semiconductor chip where the temperature is the highest.

  • 8. Where are Fuji semiconductor products manufactured?
     

    The semiconductor products of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. are manufactured at its six sites in Japan (including Matsumoto Factory, Yamanashi Factory, Fuji Electric Power Semiconductor Co., Ltd., and Fuji Electric Tsugaru Semiconductor Co., Ltd.), and three overseas sites (Fuji Electric (ShenZhen) Co., Ltd., Fuji Electric Philippines, Inc., and Fuji Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.).

  • 9. Is there any quality difference between products made in Japan and those made overseas?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. enforces the same quality standard for product management at all locations, regardless of where the manufacturing sites are.

  • 10. Is it possible to get a product which is not in the catalog? Does Fuji make customized products?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 11. Is there any quick way to determine the quality of IGBT before mounting?
     

    You can verify the IGBT by checking the leakage current between G and E, and C and E, using a transistor curve tracer (CT). Simple failure diagnosis can also be done using a voltage, resistance tester in place of a CT. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-2.

  • 12. Where can we obtain an RoHS Certificate of Conformity (CoC)?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 13. Are Fuji semiconductor parts compliant with REACH regulations?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 14. Have Fuji semiconductor parts an UL certification?
     

    Power semiconductor modules of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. have been certified with UL standard 1557, category code QQQX2 (File No. E82988). The relevant model types can be found on the UL website's (http://japan.ul.com/) Online Certifications Directory.

  • 15. Is there an upper limit of switching frequency for an IGBT?
     

    The switching frequency (carrier frequency) is not defined in specifications. A higher frequency will increase the switching loss, leading to a problem with the junction temperature. The device will be operable under the absolute maximum rated temperature; a frequency of 15 kHz or less should be used for V-series IGBT module. For a welding device or medical equipment it might be necessary to use switching frequencies of 20 kHz or higher, therefore we recommend a high-speed standard 2in1 module or W-series discrete IBGT.

  • 16. What types of noise are generated at an inverter unit that has a power semiconductor device built in?
     

    There are two types of noise: conductive noise (noise terminal voltage) and radiation noise. Conductive noise propagates over a conductor or earth wire in a main circuit. It is divided into two groups: normal mode and common mode. Radiation noise is generated within a device and emitted into the air because the device wiring or casing works as an antenna. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 17. How can we reduce conductive noise?
     

    "Conductive noise can be reduced through methods such as adding an LC filter on the AC power side, adding a ferrite core, or adjusting the gate resistance to suppress dv/dt at the time of switching.
    For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10."

  • 18. How can we reduce radiation noise?
     

    Radiation noise can be reduced through methods such as reducing the loop current area where noise is generated, or adjusting the gate resistance. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 1. What is an IGBT?
     

    It stands for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. It is a voltage-controlled device that has an insulated gate with an oxide insulating film. The gate structure is similar to a MOSFET. It combines the positive characteristics of a MOSFET and bipolar transistor. It is an indispensable component in a power conversion circuit for high-voltage and large-current applications. It is mainly used in consumer equipment such as air conditioners (a/c) or microwave ovens, industrial equipment such as elevators, and inverters for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV).

  • 2. Why is FWD required?
     

    Conventional IGBT elements are not capable of blocking a reverse-withstand voltage. When an inverter circuit is used to drive an inductive load like in a motor, the load current will continue flowing in the reverse direction (emitter to collector) at the time of switching. This may damage the IGBT. The IGBT is protected by a commutating load current in a diode (freewheeling diode: FWD) connected inversely in parallel.

  • 3. What is a RB-IGBT?
     

    It stands for Reverse Blocking Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. Reverse-parallel connection of RB-IGBT enables both way switching. It is incorporated in AT-NPC (Advanced T-type Neutral Point Clamped) 3-level inverters, to increase the power conversion efficiency because there are less current passing elements.

  • 4. What is a module?
     

    A module is a package which contains several power semiconductor devices that form a bridge circuit, etc. A modul provides thermal and electrical contact as well as the electrical insulation maintained between the heat-radiation surface and the electric part. For this reason multiple modules can be placed on the same heat sink. Compared to setups that operate with multiple discrete products, the module can handle a larger current and is superior because it is small, lightweight, and easy to assemble.

  • 5. What does PIM mean?
     

    It stands for Power Integrated Module. A PIM is a module that is composed of a 3-phase rectifier circuit, 3-phase inverter circuit, and brake circuit. It is also called CIB (Converter Inverter Brake).

  • 6. What does IPM mean?
     

    It stands for Intelligent Power Module. An IPM is a module product, based on a 3-phase inverter circuit with a control IC that contains a gate driving circuit and other protection circuits. This product makes it easier to design peripheral circuits than conventional IGBT modules with external driver circuits. The following configurations are possible: 7in1 with a brake circuit, and 6in1 without brake circuit.

  • 7. What is a SiC hybrid module?
     

    This is a product that uses a SiC-SBD (Shottky Barrier Diode) as FWD component, with a combination of Si-IGBT. This combination reduces the losses by approximately 25% in comparison with conventional all-silicon chip products. SiC devices are the focus of attention as next-generation semiconductors that offer superior characteristics in areas such as high withstand-voltage, high-temperature, and high-frequency operations.

  • 8. What is the difference between PIM and IPM?
     

    PIM is a product that integrates a 3-phase converter circuit, brake circuit, and 3-phase inverter circuit into a single module. This leads to a compact main circuit design. IPM, on the other hand, offers an advantage of simple peripheral circuit designing, by use of its built-in control IC. This IC contains gate driving and protection circuits, in addition to brake and inverter circuits.

  • 9. What is the V-series of IGBT?
     

    This product series uses our company's 6th-generation IGBT chip set. This chip generation uses a trench gate structure that forms a three-dimensional gate over the silicon surface. It also contains a field stop structure (FS structure) to improve the characteristic of the element withstand voltage. These technologies made it possible to use a thinner silicon wafer which leads to a lower on-voltage, reduced switching losses, and improved switching speed control, compared to Fuji's 5th generation IGBT (U-series IGBT).

  • 10. How do I read IGBT module model types?
     

    Refer to "Part numbers" in the Semiconductors General Catalog.

  • 11. What is the meaning of each item in the IGBT data sheet?
     

    Refer to the description of terms in Application Manual Chapter 2-1.

  • 12. How do I select a module by the rated parameters?
     

    Regarding voltage and current rating, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-1 on "how to select an IGBT module". Before use, please verify that the voltage, current, temperature, and other factors stay within the maximum rating range. For support please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 13. Can the voltage exceed IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) for a short time?
     

    Maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) is specified as the maximum rating in the relevant specifications. The voltage should never exceed this value.

  • 14. Is it always expedient to use the gate resistance (RG) value indicated in the data sheet?
     

    The optimum gate resistance value (RG) varies depending on the circuit configuration or operating environment used. The data sheet describes the recommended resistance value to minimize switching loss. Determine an appropriate gate resistance (RG) after considering the relevant switching loss, EMC/EMI, surge voltage, and unexpected characteristics such as vibration, without deviating from the descriptions contained in the data sheet.

  • 15. How should the gate resistance (RG) be determined?
     

    The gate resistance value (RG) greatly impacts dv/dt, radiation noise, voltage/current surge, and switching loss. Please comprehensively determine an appropriate value that corresponds to the target figure of your actual design. As for reference, a recommended turn-on resistance value (RG(on)) is twice or higher than that of the standard value from datasheet, and a recommended turn-off resistance value (RG(off)) is one to two times that of the standard value.

  • 16. How can the surge voltage be reduced?
     

    A surge voltage is generated by high di/dt, and wiring inductance outside the module, at the time of switching (L*di/dt). Some of the ways to suppress this problem are as follows:
    (1) Add a protective circuit
    (2) Reduce di/dt by adjusting RG or -VGE
    (3) Reduce inductance by making the main circuit wiring thicker and shorter, and using a copper bar and parallel flat wiring
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 17. What ohm value is set for internal gate resistance (RG) in an IGBT module?
     

    "Refer to the data sheet where internal gate resistance (RG) values for the 6th-generation V-series and 7th-generation X-series IGBT module are described.
    Please contact us with a model type number if it is not shown in the 6th-generation data sheet or if it is a product prior to the 6th-generation (U-series, S-series)."

  • 18. What are the points we need to be aware of when determining the gate resistance (RG)?
     

    A larger gate resistance (RG) will increase switching loss, and make it more prone to generating an arm short circuit due to an insufficient dead-time. A smaller gate resistance (RG)may cause a sudden surge voltage. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapters 2-2.2 and 7-1.3.

  • 19. Which terminal should be used to measure the collector-emitter voltage (VCE) when switching?
     

    Please measure at the main terminal of the product. If a terminal is separately specified for measurement in the data sheet, please use the specified terminal.

  • 20. What is the reason for applying reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) between the gate and emitter?
     

    An insufficient reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) between the gate and emitter may cause the IGBT to mis-fire, leading to a short-circuit current. If the current is cut off the surge voltage and the generated loss may damage the product. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapters 4-3.3 and 7-1.2.

  • 21. Can application of a reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) on a gate-to-emitter be exempted in a case where only an FWD is used without an opposite IGBT, such as in a chopper circuit?
     

    Please apply a reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) of -5 V or higher (-15 V recommended; max. -20 V) between the gate and emitter in the IGBT that is not being used. An insufficient reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) may cause the IGBT to misfire due to dV/dt at the time of reverse-recovery of the FWD, resulting in damage.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-10.

  • 22. What precautions need to be considered when designing an IGBT drive circuit?
     

    Refer to Application Manual Chapter 7-5. It provides precautions regarding the photo-coupler's noise capability, wiring between the drive circuit and IGBT, and gate overvoltage protection.

  • 23. What is the lowest operation temperature for an IGBT module?
     

    The minimum temperature is specified by the storage temperature (Tstg). Please consider that there will be a reduced device withstand voltage and peripheral component (capacitor, control circuit) characteristics under low temperature before use.

  • 24. Can an IPM operate at -40oC?
     

    Our IPM is designed with a lowest guaranteed operating temperature of Tc=-20oC. Operation below this temperature has not been evaluated, and any use below -20oC will void your warranty. At such temperature, there are concerns about possible malfunctions due to a lower device withstand voltage or reduced capacity of the used capacitor.

  • 25. Is there a temperature dependency in the IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES)?
     

    A lower temperature reduces the IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES). The data sheet describes the maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) under the condition of Tj=25oC. Refer to the technical information describing temperature dependency included in the technical documents under Design Support.

  • 26. How do I calculate IGBT losses?
     

    Fuji provides a free software to calculate the IGBT losses. The following steps can be followed to obtain the figure.
    (1) Download our Loss Simulator
    (2) Launch our Loss Simulator
    (3) Enter data on the chip series, circuit configuration, voltage rating, and current rating. Select your model type. Click ""Next""
    (4) Enter data on the circuit, PWM modulation scheme, and calculation conditions. Click ""Calculate""
    (5) The calculation result will be displayed
    For details, refer to the user manual.

  • 27. What functions do the IGBT Simulator have?
     

    The IGBT Simulator can estimate the power loss and temperature for a 3-phase 2-level inverter circuit, 3-phase 3-level inverter circuit, and chopper circuit of an IGBT and FWD. It can also calculate loss and temperature under variable inverter operation conditions such as output current and switching frequency. Changes in loss and temperature when the load continuously fluctuates, can also be obtained.

  • 28. What is the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature is the temperature at joints on a semiconductor chip.

  • 29. What is the case temperature (Tc)?
     

    Case temperature (Tc) is the temperature on the module copper base surface right under a semiconductor chip where the temperature is the highest.

  • 30. What is the acceptable range of case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    Refer to the "Maximum Ratings: Case temperature" section in the data sheet.

  • 31. How do I estimate the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature can be estimated based on generated losses and thermal resistance Rth(j-c). For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-2.1.
    We provide a free software to calculate IGBT's temperature at 2-level inverter, 3-level inverter, and chopper circuits. This software can be downloaded here.

  • 32. What is the difference between Tj(max) and Tj(op)?
     

    The maximum allowable temperature for the chip during conventional continuous operation is specified in Tj(op). Please ensure the maximum chip temperature stays at or under Tj(op) during conventional continuous operation. The maximum allowable temperature for a chip during short-term overload or abnormal operation is specified inTj(max).

  • 33. How do I measure the case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    The following illustrates an example of how to measure case temperature (Tc).
    One method is to make a groove on a copper base or a heat sink of an IGBT module to embed a thermocouple. Please fill the groove with highly thermally conductive paste to secure the thermocouple and attain even thermal diffusion.

  • 34. Where are the chips located internally?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 35. Can we apply an IGBT module directly to a heat sink?
     

    No, prior to using an IGBT module, please apply thermal grease (compound) on the surface of a heat sink and module before layering. This will reduce the contact thermal resistance. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 36. What are the recommended thermal conductivity and thickness for thermal grease?
     

    Recommended values are 0.92 W/m·K or higher for thermal conductivity, and approximately 100 μm thick after spreading thermal grease. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 37. Is there a recommended thermal grease that should be used?
     

    Refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 for details.

  • 38. How should thermal grease (compound) be applied on an IGBT module?
     

    Thermal grease can be applied using either a roller or stencil mask. An inappropriate thermal grease thickness will negatively affect heat radiation to the heat sink. We strongly recommend using a stencil mask that enables a uniform thickness to be applied over the back surface of the module. For details on application methods, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction. An optimum outline drawing for each module is also available. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 39. What thermal grease precautions should we be aware of?
     

    While thermal grease promotes thermal conduction to a fin, it has a thermal capacity itself. Applying too much grease will obstruct the heat radiation to fins. At the same time, applying too little will increase the contact thermal resistance because thermal grease will not have good contact in some spots between the fins and module for bonding. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 "Thermal paste application" and technical documents.

  • 40. What range is used for heat sink flatness as a reference?
     

    Guides to flatness values for a heat sink are 50 μm or less for 100 mm between screw mounting locations, and 10 μm or less for surface roughness. An excessive convex warp will cause an insulation breakdown, leading to a critical incident. An excessive concave warp will reduce heat radiation by creating a gap between the product and heat sink, which may lead to thermal destruction.

  • 41. What is a NTC?
     

    NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistor) is an electronic component whose resistance decreases while the temperature increases.

  • 42. Is the temperature Tj represented by the NTC temperature?
     

    They are not the same. When incorporating it in an IGBT module, NTC is positioned far from the chip to ensure insulation. This produces a temperature gap between them although NTC's temperature will follow that of chip's Tj.

  • 43. What is the temperature difference between Tj and NTC temperature?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 44. What is the diode's I2t?
     

    I2t is a Joule-integral for overcurrent allowed within the range that does not result in element destruction. Overcurrent is defined in one cycle at commercially restricted half-waves (50, 60 Hz).

  • 45. What types of power cycle capability are available?
     

    The types of power cycle capability include the ΔTj power cycle (ΔTj-P/C) capability curve and the ΔTc power cycle (ΔTc-P/C) capability curve. We verify device life on two models, therefore please design a product life expectancy within these power cycle capabilities. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 46. How do I calculate the power cycle in cases where there are multiple temperature rise peaks?
     

    In cases where the temperature increases n-times per device operation cycle, we assign a power cycle life expectance count as PC(k=1, 2, 3, ..., n). PC(k) is the power cycle life for the k-th temperature rise. A combined power cycle life expectancy count can be expressed by the formula below.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 47. Which parameters have an impact to IGBT's short-circuit current?
     

    IGBT's short-circuit current is impacted by gate-to-emitter voltage VGE, junction temperature Tj, and switching voltage Vcc. Generally, a short-circuit current increases with a large VGE, low Tj, and large Vcc.

  • 48. How can we determine the dead-time?
     

    To prevent a short-circuit in the upper and lower arms, it is necessary to set an on-off timing delay between the several arms. During this time period both devices are switched off. The dead-time needs to be set so that it is generally longer than the switching time of the IGBT (toff max.).
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 49. How can we confirm the dead-time?
     

    One way to determine the validity of the dead-time setting is to verify the current on the direct current power line during non-loading time.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 50. Does QG show temperature dependence?
     

    There is no dependency.

  • 51. Does Cies show temperature dependence?
     

    There is no dependency.

  • 52. What types of snubber circuit are available?
     

    There are two types of snubber circuits. The first type is implemented between the DC power supply busbars and is called lump snubber. The second type is called individual snubber ciruit and is connected to each IGBT.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 53. How is the capacitor C of the snubber circuit to be determined?
     

    The necessary capacity for a snubber capacitor can be obtained with the following formula.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 54. How do I mount a module?
     

    Refer to IGBT module's Application Manual Chapter 6-3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 55. Can IGBT modules be used in parallel?
     

    Some IGBT module models can be connected in parallel, while other models cannot. Please contact our company or your local distributor.

  • 56. What precautions do I need to be aware of when connecting IGBT modules in parallel?
     

    There are four basic precautions, shown below, when connecting IGBT modules in parallel:
    (1) Current unbalance control during steady operation
    (2) Current unbalance control at the time of switching
    (3) Gate drive circuit
    (4) Derating
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-3.5 and Chapter 8.

  • 57. Where are Fuji semiconductor products manufactured?
     

    The semiconductor products of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. are manufactured at its six sites in Japan (including Matsumoto Factory, Yamanashi Factory, Fuji Electric Power Semiconductor Co., Ltd., and Fuji Electric Tsugaru Semiconductor Co., Ltd.), and three overseas sites (Fuji Electric (ShenZhen) Co., Ltd., Fuji Electric Philippines, Inc., and Fuji Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.).

  • 58. Is there any quality difference between products made in Japan and those made overseas?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. enforces the same quality standard for product management at all locations, regardless of where the manufacturing sites are.

  • 59. Are there any simulation models for the semiconductor products?
     

    A simulation model such as a SPICE model is not available.

  • 60. How do I verify the authenticity of products I have purchased online, etc.?
     

    Product warranty and support are provided if products have been purchased from our distributors or an authorized dealer. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 61. How do I get a sample?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 62. Is it possible to get a product which is not in the catalog? Does Fuji make customized products?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 63. How do I store semiconductor devices?
     

    The desired storage environment has a temperature range of 5 to 35oC, and humidity range of 45% to 75%. Avoid storage under load, and secure a location with little temperature fluctuation. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-8.

  • 64. What do we need to be aware of when soldering an IGBT module?
     

    Avoid soldering under excessive temperature. Soldering condition have to be within specification value. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd or your local distributor. It may result in package degradation.

  • 65. Are there any measures to prevent misfiring by high dv/dt during the reverse recovery of the FWD?
     

    Some of the ways to prevent misfiring of an IGBT are as follows:
    (1) by adding a capacity component CGE to the area between the gate and emitter
    (2) by increasing -VGE
    (3) by increasing gate resistance (RG)
    The effectiveness of these measures will vary depending on the applicable gate circuit, so please verify thoroughly before applying them. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7-1.4.

  • 66. What is the piece of black sponge pinned on the module terminals?
     

    The piece of black sponge is attached for protection. Please keep the sponge on the module at the time of storage.

  • 67. Is there any quick way to determine the quality of IGBT before mounting?
     

    You can verify the IGBT by checking the leakage current between G and E, and C and E, using a transistor curve tracer (CT). Simple failure diagnosis can also be done using a voltage, resistance tester in place of a CT. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-2.

  • 68. What are countermeasures against static electricity when an IGBT module is used?
     

    (1) Discharge any static electricity by grounding through a high-capacity resistor, and use a conductive mat that has been grounded
    (2) Hold the package body without directly touching the IGBT module terminals (especially control terminal)
    (3) Ground tools such as a soldering tip, at an adequately low resistance
    (4) Protect a control terminal using conductive material such as IC foam
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-2.

  • 69. What is EMI?
     

    EMI is an abbreviation of Electro Magnetic Interference. The word describes the negative effect caused on peripheral equipment by an electronic device, and it is also called emission. EMI consists of conductive noise that leaks to a power source, and radiation noise that is emitted as electromagnetic waves. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 70. What is EMS?
     

    EMS is an abbreviation of Electro Magnetic Susceptibility. The word describes an electronic device's capability and performance against surrounding interference, and it is also called immunity. It includes evaluation items such as electromagnetic waves, static electricity, and lightning surge. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 71. How long has Fuji Electric been manufacturing IGBT products?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. began manufacturing IGBTs in 1988, and now has nearly 30 years of history in supplying IGBT products to the market.

  • 72. Is there a lifetime for IGBT modules?
     

    Yes. The main factors impacting the IGBT module's life expectancy are temperature gaps involving the element's junction temperature Tj, and increase and decrease of case temperature Tc. Refer to technical documents describing the relationship of ΔTj and ΔTc with the device life expectancy.

  • 73. How do I read a lot number?
     

    The first digit represents the year of manufacture, the second digit is the month of manufacture, and the remaining 3 to 4 digits are the lot number.

  • 74. How do I handle a terminal when IPM's ALM terminal is not used?
     

    Pull up the ALM terminal to VCC to stabilize electric potential.

  • 75. Where can we obtain an RoHS Certificate of Conformity (CoC)?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 76. Are Fuji semiconductor parts compliant with REACH regulations?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 77. Have Fuji semiconductor parts an UL certification?
     

    Power semiconductor modules of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. have been certified with UL standard 1557, category code QQQX2 (File No. E82988). The relevant model types can be found on the UL website's (http://japan.ul.com/) Online Certifications Directory.

  • 78. How do I handle a terminal when IPM's brake circuit is not used?
     

    Pull up the VinDB terminal to VCC to stabilize electric potential.

  • 79. What is an insulated substrate?
     

    The insulated substrate consists of a ceramic substrate, front-surface copper-foil pattern to create a circuit, and back-surface copper-foil to solder with a copper base. It is designed to electrically insulate between the electric part and the part for thermal dissipation. The ceramic substrate materials used are aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, etc.

  • 80. Is there an upper limit of switching frequency for an IGBT?
     

    The switching frequency (carrier frequency) is not defined in specifications. A higher frequency will increase the switching loss, leading to a problem with the junction temperature. The device will be operable under the absolute maximum rated temperature; a frequency of 15 kHz or less should be used for V-series IGBT module. For a welding device or medical equipment it might be necessary to use switching frequencies of 20 kHz or higher, therefore we recommend a high-speed standard 2in1 module or W-series discrete IBGT.

  • 81. Is there any recommended connector for IPM's control terminal?
     

    Connectors compatible with V-IPM series terminal shapes (by HIROSE ELECTRIC CO., LTD.) are on the market.
    P630: MA49-19S-2.54DSA, MA49-19S-2.54DSA(01)
    P631: MDF7-25S-2.54DSA
    Please contact HIROSE ELECTRIC CO., LTD. to purchase the relevant connector or verify reliability.

  • 82. What type of compatible female terminal (tab terminal) should we choose for a standard package control terminal?
     

    The compatible tab is the 110 series. Please select a tab terminal which has the tab dimensions of 2.8 mm width, and 0.5 mm plate thickness. Relevant products are available on the market from Tyco Electronics Japan G.K., J.S.T. MFG. CO., LTD., and NICHIFU Co., Ltd. Please contact any of these companies for details.

  • 83. What is a press-fit pin?
     

    It is a pin type that allows PCB mounting without soldering. It is used in PIM and 6-Pack products. The time required for the assembly process is reduced as connection is completed by pressing an IGBT module over PCB's through-hole and applying pressure from the base side. Special press and press-in tools are required. We do not sell presses or tools.

  • 84. V-series IPM has VDA and VDN models of the same rating, but what is the difference between them?
     

    VDA and VDN use different material for their insulating substrates, resulting in separate thermal resistance values. The VDA type uses aluminum oxide, while the VDN type uses high heat-radiation material, with approximately 30% less thermal resistance than that of VDA. It is effective when achieving a lower Tj max. or longer ΔTj power cycle life expectancy.

  • 85. What is a bootstrap circuit?
     

    A bootstrap circuit is one that is composed of a control power supply to drive high-side IGBT. It is possible to have a single power supply as it does not require a transformer with multiple secondary windings. Its built-in bootstrap resistance and bootstrap diode (BSD) gives a small IPM to configure a bootstrap circuit simply by adding an external bootstrap capacitor.

  • 86. Is the IPM's input control signal high to switch the IGBT to on?
     

    IPM V-series input control signal is IGBT-on when set at Low. A small IPM's input control signal is IGBT-on when set at High.

  • 87. What factors determine the value of thermal resistance Rth(j-c)?
     

    The thermal resistance value may differ even in the same rating, when comparing different families of products made by Fuji Electric or other companies. A low thermal resistance in a certain product may be due to a larger semiconductor chip size, or the use of a ceramic insulating substrate with good thermal conductivity.

  • 88. The parameter for thermal resistance given in the specification is described as ( per 1 device). What does it mean?
     

    1 device represents a value per arm (IGBT+FWD). Some models connect multiple chips per arm in parallel. This parallel-chip configuration is counted as one chip.

  • 89. What is the meaning of the given gate resistance RG value in the specification? Does this mean external resistance?
     

    It represents an external resistance. It excludes the module's built-in RG(int).

  • 90. What is RBSOA?
     

    RBSOA is an abbreviation of Reverse Bias Safety Operating Area. The data sheet contains a characteristic graph describing double the rated voltage and rated current under the condition of maximum continuous operation temperature Tj(op). It illustrates a range of VCE and IC where safe operation is maintained when IGBT is turning off. The operation can be repeated within the RBSOA range.

  • 91. What is SCSOA?
     

    SCSOA is an abbreviation of Short Circuit Safety Operating Area. During an incident with an inverter device, such as a load short-circuit, arm short-circuit, or ground fault, a current that is several times higher than the rated current flows in the IGBT. SCSOA is provided to protect the IGBT even during these instances. SCSOA has different characteristics depending on the generation or withstand voltage of IGBT. Refer to the technical documents of individual models.

  • 92. Is there ΔTc power cycle curve?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 93. What types of noise are generated at an inverter unit that has a power semiconductor device built in?
     

    There are two types of noise: conductive noise (noise terminal voltage) and radiation noise. Conductive noise propagates over a conductor or earth wire in a main circuit. It is divided into two groups: normal mode and common mode. Radiation noise is generated within a device and emitted into the air because the device wiring or casing works as an antenna. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 94. How can we reduce conductive noise?
     

    "Conductive noise can be reduced through methods such as adding an LC filter on the AC power side, adding a ferrite core, or adjusting the gate resistance to suppress dv/dt at the time of switching.
    For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10."

  • 95. How can we reduce radiation noise?
     

    Radiation noise can be reduced through methods such as reducing the loop current area where noise is generated, or adjusting the gate resistance. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 96. Can I get a drawing of the internal chip layout to measure the case temperature TC?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 97. How works a stencil mask to apply thermal compound and can I purchase it from Fuji?
     

    A stencil mask is a 200 μm-thick, metal plate with multiple holes punched in the compound application area. A compound can be applied with a uniform thickness of 100 μm when clamping the stencil to a heat sink after application. We do not sell stencil masks but we can provide a mask drawing that corresponds to the relevant package.

  • 98. What happens to IGBT modules in a case where an application exceeds the ΔTj power cycle capability?
     

    It will cause a separation of aluminum wire, or a crack in the solder under the chip. Thermal destruction will result from the current concentrating on the relevant part of the chip, or increased thermal resistance.

  • 99. Where is a NTC mounted in a module?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 1. Where are Fuji semiconductor products manufactured?
     

    The semiconductor products of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. are manufactured at its six sites in Japan (including Matsumoto Factory, Yamanashi Factory, Fuji Electric Power Semiconductor Co., Ltd., and Fuji Electric Tsugaru Semiconductor Co., Ltd.), and three overseas sites (Fuji Electric (ShenZhen) Co., Ltd., Fuji Electric Philippines, Inc., and Fuji Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.).

  • 2. Is there any quality difference between products made in Japan and those made overseas?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. enforces the same quality standard for product management at all locations, regardless of where the manufacturing sites are.

  • 3. Is it possible to get a product which is not in the catalog? Does Fuji make customized products?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 4. Where can we obtain an RoHS Certificate of Conformity (CoC)?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 5. Are Fuji semiconductor parts compliant with REACH regulations?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 6. Have Fuji semiconductor parts an UL certification?
     

    Power semiconductor modules of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. have been certified with UL standard 1557, category code QQQX2 (File No. E82988). The relevant model types can be found on the UL website's (http://japan.ul.com/) Online Certifications Directory.

  • 1. What is the difference between an IGBT and a MOSFET?
     

    An IGBT is a device that has a basic structure of a P-layer added to the drain side of a MOSFET. An IGBT is suited for large-current and high withstand-voltage applications. A MOSFET is suited for small-capacity and high-speed switching applications.

  • 2. What is the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature is the temperature at joints on a semiconductor chip.

  • 3. What is the case temperature (Tc)?
     

    Case temperature (Tc) is the temperature on the module copper base surface right under a semiconductor chip where the temperature is the highest.

  • 4. Where are Fuji semiconductor products manufactured?
     

    The semiconductor products of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. are manufactured at its six sites in Japan (including Matsumoto Factory, Yamanashi Factory, Fuji Electric Power Semiconductor Co., Ltd., and Fuji Electric Tsugaru Semiconductor Co., Ltd.), and three overseas sites (Fuji Electric (ShenZhen) Co., Ltd., Fuji Electric Philippines, Inc., and Fuji Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.).

  • 5. Is there any quality difference between products made in Japan and those made overseas?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. enforces the same quality standard for product management at all locations, regardless of where the manufacturing sites are.

  • 6. Is it possible to get a product which is not in the catalog? Does Fuji make customized products?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 7. Is there any quick way to determine the quality of IGBT before mounting?
     

    You can verify the IGBT by checking the leakage current between G and E, and C and E, using a transistor curve tracer (CT). Simple failure diagnosis can also be done using a voltage, resistance tester in place of a CT. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-2.

  • 8. Where can we obtain an RoHS Certificate of Conformity (CoC)?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 9. Are Fuji semiconductor parts compliant with REACH regulations?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 10. Have Fuji semiconductor parts an UL certification?
     

    Power semiconductor modules of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. have been certified with UL standard 1557, category code QQQX2 (File No. E82988). The relevant model types can be found on the UL website's (http://japan.ul.com/) Online Certifications Directory.

  • 11. What types of noise are generated at an inverter unit that has a power semiconductor device built in?
     

    There are two types of noise: conductive noise (noise terminal voltage) and radiation noise. Conductive noise propagates over a conductor or earth wire in a main circuit. It is divided into two groups: normal mode and common mode. Radiation noise is generated within a device and emitted into the air because the device wiring or casing works as an antenna. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 12. How can we reduce conductive noise?
     

    "Conductive noise can be reduced through methods such as adding an LC filter on the AC power side, adding a ferrite core, or adjusting the gate resistance to suppress dv/dt at the time of switching.
    For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10."

  • 13. How can we reduce radiation noise?
     

    Radiation noise can be reduced through methods such as reducing the loop current area where noise is generated, or adjusting the gate resistance. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 1. What is the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature is the temperature at joints on a semiconductor chip.

  • 2. What is the case temperature (Tc)?
     

    Case temperature (Tc) is the temperature on the module copper base surface right under a semiconductor chip where the temperature is the highest.

  • 3. What is the diode's I2t?
     

    I2t is a Joule-integral for overcurrent allowed within the range that does not result in element destruction. Overcurrent is defined in one cycle at commercially restricted half-waves (50, 60 Hz).

  • 4. Where are Fuji semiconductor products manufactured?
     

    The semiconductor products of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. are manufactured at its six sites in Japan (including Matsumoto Factory, Yamanashi Factory, Fuji Electric Power Semiconductor Co., Ltd., and Fuji Electric Tsugaru Semiconductor Co., Ltd.), and three overseas sites (Fuji Electric (ShenZhen) Co., Ltd., Fuji Electric Philippines, Inc., and Fuji Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.).

  • 5. Is there any quality difference between products made in Japan and those made overseas?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. enforces the same quality standard for product management at all locations, regardless of where the manufacturing sites are.

  • 6. Is it possible to get a product which is not in the catalog? Does Fuji make customized products?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 7. Where can we obtain an RoHS Certificate of Conformity (CoC)?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 8. Are Fuji semiconductor parts compliant with REACH regulations?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 9. Have Fuji semiconductor parts an UL certification?
     

    Power semiconductor modules of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. have been certified with UL standard 1557, category code QQQX2 (File No. E82988). The relevant model types can be found on the UL website's (http://japan.ul.com/) Online Certifications Directory.

  • 10. What types of noise are generated at an inverter unit that has a power semiconductor device built in?
     

    There are two types of noise: conductive noise (noise terminal voltage) and radiation noise. Conductive noise propagates over a conductor or earth wire in a main circuit. It is divided into two groups: normal mode and common mode. Radiation noise is generated within a device and emitted into the air because the device wiring or casing works as an antenna. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 11. How can we reduce conductive noise?
     

    "Conductive noise can be reduced through methods such as adding an LC filter on the AC power side, adding a ferrite core, or adjusting the gate resistance to suppress dv/dt at the time of switching.
    For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10."

  • 12. How can we reduce radiation noise?
     

    Radiation noise can be reduced through methods such as reducing the loop current area where noise is generated, or adjusting the gate resistance. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 1. What is an IGBT?
     

    It stands for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. It is a voltage-controlled device that has an insulated gate with an oxide insulating film. The gate structure is similar to a MOSFET. It combines the positive characteristics of a MOSFET and bipolar transistor. It is an indispensable component in a power conversion circuit for high-voltage and large-current applications. It is mainly used in consumer equipment such as air conditioners (a/c) or microwave ovens, industrial equipment such as elevators, and inverters for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV).

  • 2. Why is FWD required?
     

    Conventional IGBT elements are not capable of blocking a reverse-withstand voltage. When an inverter circuit is used to drive an inductive load like in a motor, the load current will continue flowing in the reverse direction (emitter to collector) at the time of switching. This may damage the IGBT. The IGBT is protected by a commutating load current in a diode (freewheeling diode: FWD) connected inversely in parallel.

  • 3. What is the difference between an IGBT and a MOSFET?
     

    An IGBT is a device that has a basic structure of a P-layer added to the drain side of a MOSFET. An IGBT is suited for large-current and high withstand-voltage applications. A MOSFET is suited for small-capacity and high-speed switching applications.

  • 4. What does SiC mean?
     

    It stands for Silicon Carbide. SiC has a wider bandgap width compared to silicon, and is expected to become the next-generation power device material for high-temperature operation, high-speed switching, low power-loss, and high withstand-voltage applications.

  • 5. What is a module?
     

    A module is a package which contains several power semiconductor devices that form a bridge circuit, etc. A modul provides thermal and electrical contact as well as the electrical insulation maintained between the heat-radiation surface and the electric part. For this reason multiple modules can be placed on the same heat sink. Compared to setups that operate with multiple discrete products, the module can handle a larger current and is superior because it is small, lightweight, and easy to assemble.

  • 6. What does PIM mean?
     

    It stands for Power Integrated Module. A PIM is a module that is composed of a 3-phase rectifier circuit, 3-phase inverter circuit, and brake circuit. It is also called CIB (Converter Inverter Brake).

  • 7. What is a SiC hybrid module?
     

    This is a product that uses a SiC-SBD (Shottky Barrier Diode) as FWD component, with a combination of Si-IGBT. This combination reduces the losses by approximately 25% in comparison with conventional all-silicon chip products. SiC devices are the focus of attention as next-generation semiconductors that offer superior characteristics in areas such as high withstand-voltage, high-temperature, and high-frequency operations.

  • 8. What is the difference between PIM and IPM?
     

    PIM is a product that integrates a 3-phase converter circuit, brake circuit, and 3-phase inverter circuit into a single module. This leads to a compact main circuit design. IPM, on the other hand, offers an advantage of simple peripheral circuit designing, by use of its built-in control IC. This IC contains gate driving and protection circuits, in addition to brake and inverter circuits.

  • 9. How do I read IGBT module model types?
     

    Refer to "Part numbers" in the Semiconductors General Catalog.

  • 10. What is the meaning of each item in the IGBT data sheet?
     

    Refer to the description of terms in Application Manual Chapter 2-1.

  • 11. How do I select a module by the rated parameters?
     

    Regarding voltage and current rating, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-1 on "how to select an IGBT module". Before use, please verify that the voltage, current, temperature, and other factors stay within the maximum rating range. For support please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 12. Can the voltage exceed IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) for a short time?
     

    Maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) is specified as the maximum rating in the relevant specifications. The voltage should never exceed this value.

  • 13. Is it always expedient to use the gate resistance (RG) value indicated in the data sheet?
     

    The optimum gate resistance value (RG) varies depending on the circuit configuration or operating environment used. The data sheet describes the recommended resistance value to minimize switching loss. Determine an appropriate gate resistance (RG) after considering the relevant switching loss, EMC/EMI, surge voltage, and unexpected characteristics such as vibration, without deviating from the descriptions contained in the data sheet.

  • 14. How should the gate resistance (RG) be determined?
     

    The gate resistance value (RG) greatly impacts dv/dt, radiation noise, voltage/current surge, and switching loss. Please comprehensively determine an appropriate value that corresponds to the target figure of your actual design. As for reference, a recommended turn-on resistance value (RG(on)) is twice or higher than that of the standard value from datasheet, and a recommended turn-off resistance value (RG(off)) is one to two times that of the standard value.

  • 15. How can the surge voltage be reduced?
     

    A surge voltage is generated by high di/dt, and wiring inductance outside the module, at the time of switching (L*di/dt). Some of the ways to suppress this problem are as follows:
    (1) Add a protective circuit
    (2) Reduce di/dt by adjusting RG or -VGE
    (3) Reduce inductance by making the main circuit wiring thicker and shorter, and using a copper bar and parallel flat wiring
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 16. What are the points we need to be aware of when determining the gate resistance (RG)?
     

    A larger gate resistance (RG) will increase switching loss, and make it more prone to generating an arm short circuit due to an insufficient dead-time. A smaller gate resistance (RG)may cause a sudden surge voltage. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapters 2-2.2 and 7-1.3.

  • 17. Which terminal should be used to measure the collector-emitter voltage (VCE) when switching?
     

    Please measure at the main terminal of the product. If a terminal is separately specified for measurement in the data sheet, please use the specified terminal.

  • 18. What is the reason for applying reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) between the gate and emitter?
     

    An insufficient reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) between the gate and emitter may cause the IGBT to mis-fire, leading to a short-circuit current. If the current is cut off the surge voltage and the generated loss may damage the product. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapters 4-3.3 and 7-1.2.

  • 19. Can application of a reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) on a gate-to-emitter be exempted in a case where only an FWD is used without an opposite IGBT, such as in a chopper circuit?
     

    Please apply a reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) of -5 V or higher (-15 V recommended; max. -20 V) between the gate and emitter in the IGBT that is not being used. An insufficient reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) may cause the IGBT to misfire due to dV/dt at the time of reverse-recovery of the FWD, resulting in damage.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-10.

  • 20. What precautions need to be considered when designing an IGBT drive circuit?
     

    Refer to Application Manual Chapter 7-5. It provides precautions regarding the photo-coupler's noise capability, wiring between the drive circuit and IGBT, and gate overvoltage protection.

  • 21. What is the lowest operation temperature for an IGBT module?
     

    The minimum temperature is specified by the storage temperature (Tstg). Please consider that there will be a reduced device withstand voltage and peripheral component (capacitor, control circuit) characteristics under low temperature before use.

  • 22. Is there a temperature dependency in the IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES)?
     

    A lower temperature reduces the IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES). The data sheet describes the maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) under the condition of Tj=25oC. Refer to the technical information describing temperature dependency included in the technical documents under Design Support.

  • 23. How do I calculate IGBT losses?
     

    Fuji provides a free software to calculate the IGBT losses. The following steps can be followed to obtain the figure.
    (1) Download our Loss Simulator
    (2) Launch our Loss Simulator
    (3) Enter data on the chip series, circuit configuration, voltage rating, and current rating. Select your model type. Click ""Next""
    (4) Enter data on the circuit, PWM modulation scheme, and calculation conditions. Click ""Calculate""
    (5) The calculation result will be displayed
    For details, refer to the user manual.

  • 24. What functions do the IGBT Simulator have?
     

    The IGBT Simulator can estimate the power loss and temperature for a 3-phase 2-level inverter circuit, 3-phase 3-level inverter circuit, and chopper circuit of an IGBT and FWD. It can also calculate loss and temperature under variable inverter operation conditions such as output current and switching frequency. Changes in loss and temperature when the load continuously fluctuates, can also be obtained.

  • 25. What is the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature is the temperature at joints on a semiconductor chip.

  • 26. What is the case temperature (Tc)?
     

    Case temperature (Tc) is the temperature on the module copper base surface right under a semiconductor chip where the temperature is the highest.

  • 27. What is the acceptable range of case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    Refer to the "Maximum Ratings: Case temperature" section in the data sheet.

  • 28. How do I estimate the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature can be estimated based on generated losses and thermal resistance Rth(j-c). For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-2.1.
    We provide a free software to calculate IGBT's temperature at 2-level inverter, 3-level inverter, and chopper circuits. This software can be downloaded here.

  • 29. What is the difference between Tj(max) and Tj(op)?
     

    The maximum allowable temperature for the chip during conventional continuous operation is specified in Tj(op). Please ensure the maximum chip temperature stays at or under Tj(op) during conventional continuous operation. The maximum allowable temperature for a chip during short-term overload or abnormal operation is specified inTj(max).

  • 30. How do I measure the case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    The following illustrates an example of how to measure case temperature (Tc).
    One method is to make a groove on a copper base or a heat sink of an IGBT module to embed a thermocouple. Please fill the groove with highly thermally conductive paste to secure the thermocouple and attain even thermal diffusion.

  • 31. Can we apply an IGBT module directly to a heat sink?
     

    No, prior to using an IGBT module, please apply thermal grease (compound) on the surface of a heat sink and module before layering. This will reduce the contact thermal resistance. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 32. What are the recommended thermal conductivity and thickness for thermal grease?
     

    Recommended values are 0.92 W/m·K or higher for thermal conductivity, and approximately 100 μm thick after spreading thermal grease. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 33. Is there a recommended thermal grease that should be used?
     

    Refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 for details.

  • 34. How should thermal grease (compound) be applied on an IGBT module?
     

    Thermal grease can be applied using either a roller or stencil mask. An inappropriate thermal grease thickness will negatively affect heat radiation to the heat sink. We strongly recommend using a stencil mask that enables a uniform thickness to be applied over the back surface of the module. For details on application methods, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction. An optimum outline drawing for each module is also available. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 35. What thermal grease precautions should we be aware of?
     

    While thermal grease promotes thermal conduction to a fin, it has a thermal capacity itself. Applying too much grease will obstruct the heat radiation to fins. At the same time, applying too little will increase the contact thermal resistance because thermal grease will not have good contact in some spots between the fins and module for bonding. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 "Thermal paste application" and technical documents.

  • 36. What range is used for heat sink flatness as a reference?
     

    Guides to flatness values for a heat sink are 50 μm or less for 100 mm between screw mounting locations, and 10 μm or less for surface roughness. An excessive convex warp will cause an insulation breakdown, leading to a critical incident. An excessive concave warp will reduce heat radiation by creating a gap between the product and heat sink, which may lead to thermal destruction.

  • 37. What is a NTC?
     

    NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistor) is an electronic component whose resistance decreases while the temperature increases.

  • 38. Is the temperature Tj represented by the NTC temperature?
     

    They are not the same. When incorporating it in an IGBT module, NTC is positioned far from the chip to ensure insulation. This produces a temperature gap between them although NTC's temperature will follow that of chip's Tj.

  • 39. What is the temperature difference between Tj and NTC temperature?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 40. What is the diode's I2t?
     

    I2t is a Joule-integral for overcurrent allowed within the range that does not result in element destruction. Overcurrent is defined in one cycle at commercially restricted half-waves (50, 60 Hz).

  • 41. What types of power cycle capability are available?
     

    The types of power cycle capability include the ΔTj power cycle (ΔTj-P/C) capability curve and the ΔTc power cycle (ΔTc-P/C) capability curve. We verify device life on two models, therefore please design a product life expectancy within these power cycle capabilities. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 42. How do I calculate the power cycle in cases where there are multiple temperature rise peaks?
     

    In cases where the temperature increases n-times per device operation cycle, we assign a power cycle life expectance count as PC(k=1, 2, 3, ..., n). PC(k) is the power cycle life for the k-th temperature rise. A combined power cycle life expectancy count can be expressed by the formula below.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 43. Which parameters have an impact to IGBT's short-circuit current?
     

    IGBT's short-circuit current is impacted by gate-to-emitter voltage VGE, junction temperature Tj, and switching voltage Vcc. Generally, a short-circuit current increases with a large VGE, low Tj, and large Vcc.

  • 44. How can we determine the dead-time?
     

    To prevent a short-circuit in the upper and lower arms, it is necessary to set an on-off timing delay between the several arms. During this time period both devices are switched off. The dead-time needs to be set so that it is generally longer than the switching time of the IGBT (toff max.).
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 45. How can we confirm the dead-time?
     

    One way to determine the validity of the dead-time setting is to verify the current on the direct current power line during non-loading time.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 46. Does QG show temperature dependence?
     

    There is no dependency.

  • 47. Does Cies show temperature dependence?
     

    There is no dependency.

  • 48. What types of snubber circuit are available?
     

    There are two types of snubber circuits. The first type is implemented between the DC power supply busbars and is called lump snubber. The second type is called individual snubber ciruit and is connected to each IGBT.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 49. How is the capacitor C of the snubber circuit to be determined?
     

    The necessary capacity for a snubber capacitor can be obtained with the following formula.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 50. How do I mount a module?
     

    Refer to IGBT module's Application Manual Chapter 6-3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 51. Can IGBT modules be used in parallel?
     

    Some IGBT module models can be connected in parallel, while other models cannot. Please contact our company or your local distributor.

  • 52. What precautions do I need to be aware of when connecting IGBT modules in parallel?
     

    There are four basic precautions, shown below, when connecting IGBT modules in parallel:
    (1) Current unbalance control during steady operation
    (2) Current unbalance control at the time of switching
    (3) Gate drive circuit
    (4) Derating
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-3.5 and Chapter 8.

  • 53. Where are Fuji semiconductor products manufactured?
     

    The semiconductor products of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. are manufactured at its six sites in Japan (including Matsumoto Factory, Yamanashi Factory, Fuji Electric Power Semiconductor Co., Ltd., and Fuji Electric Tsugaru Semiconductor Co., Ltd.), and three overseas sites (Fuji Electric (ShenZhen) Co., Ltd., Fuji Electric Philippines, Inc., and Fuji Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.).

  • 54. Is there any quality difference between products made in Japan and those made overseas?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. enforces the same quality standard for product management at all locations, regardless of where the manufacturing sites are.

  • 55. Are there any simulation models for the semiconductor products?
     

    A simulation model such as a SPICE model is not available.

  • 56. How do I verify the authenticity of products I have purchased online, etc.?
     

    Product warranty and support are provided if products have been purchased from our distributors or an authorized dealer. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 57. How do I get a sample?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 58. Is it possible to get a product which is not in the catalog? Does Fuji make customized products?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 59. How do I store semiconductor devices?
     

    The desired storage environment has a temperature range of 5 to 35oC, and humidity range of 45% to 75%. Avoid storage under load, and secure a location with little temperature fluctuation. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-8.

  • 60. What do we need to be aware of when soldering an IGBT module?
     

    Avoid soldering under excessive temperature. Soldering condition have to be within specification value. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd or your local distributor. It may result in package degradation.

  • 61. Are there any measures to prevent misfiring by high dv/dt during the reverse recovery of the FWD?
     

    Some of the ways to prevent misfiring of an IGBT are as follows:
    (1) by adding a capacity component CGE to the area between the gate and emitter
    (2) by increasing -VGE
    (3) by increasing gate resistance (RG)
    The effectiveness of these measures will vary depending on the applicable gate circuit, so please verify thoroughly before applying them. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7-1.4.

  • 62. What is the piece of black sponge pinned on the module terminals?
     

    The piece of black sponge is attached for protection. Please keep the sponge on the module at the time of storage.

  • 63. Is there any quick way to determine the quality of IGBT before mounting?
     

    You can verify the IGBT by checking the leakage current between G and E, and C and E, using a transistor curve tracer (CT). Simple failure diagnosis can also be done using a voltage, resistance tester in place of a CT. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-2.

  • 64. What are countermeasures against static electricity when an IGBT module is used?
     

    (1) Discharge any static electricity by grounding through a high-capacity resistor, and use a conductive mat that has been grounded
    (2) Hold the package body without directly touching the IGBT module terminals (especially control terminal)
    (3) Ground tools such as a soldering tip, at an adequately low resistance
    (4) Protect a control terminal using conductive material such as IC foam
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-2.

  • 65. What is EMI?
     

    EMI is an abbreviation of Electro Magnetic Interference. The word describes the negative effect caused on peripheral equipment by an electronic device, and it is also called emission. EMI consists of conductive noise that leaks to a power source, and radiation noise that is emitted as electromagnetic waves. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 66. What is EMS?
     

    EMS is an abbreviation of Electro Magnetic Susceptibility. The word describes an electronic device's capability and performance against surrounding interference, and it is also called immunity. It includes evaluation items such as electromagnetic waves, static electricity, and lightning surge. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 67. Is there a lifetime for IGBT modules?
     

    Yes. The main factors impacting the IGBT module's life expectancy are temperature gaps involving the element's junction temperature Tj, and increase and decrease of case temperature Tc. Refer to technical documents describing the relationship of ΔTj and ΔTc with the device life expectancy.

  • 68. How do I read a lot number?
     

    The first digit represents the year of manufacture, the second digit is the month of manufacture, and the remaining 3 to 4 digits are the lot number.

  • 69. Where can we obtain an RoHS Certificate of Conformity (CoC)?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 70. Are Fuji semiconductor parts compliant with REACH regulations?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 71. Have Fuji semiconductor parts an UL certification?
     

    Power semiconductor modules of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. have been certified with UL standard 1557, category code QQQX2 (File No. E82988). The relevant model types can be found on the UL website's (http://japan.ul.com/) Online Certifications Directory.

  • 72. Is there ΔTc power cycle curve?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 73. What types of noise are generated at an inverter unit that has a power semiconductor device built in?
     

    There are two types of noise: conductive noise (noise terminal voltage) and radiation noise. Conductive noise propagates over a conductor or earth wire in a main circuit. It is divided into two groups: normal mode and common mode. Radiation noise is generated within a device and emitted into the air because the device wiring or casing works as an antenna. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 74. How can we reduce conductive noise?
     

    "Conductive noise can be reduced through methods such as adding an LC filter on the AC power side, adding a ferrite core, or adjusting the gate resistance to suppress dv/dt at the time of switching.
    For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10."

  • 75. How can we reduce radiation noise?
     

    Radiation noise can be reduced through methods such as reducing the loop current area where noise is generated, or adjusting the gate resistance. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 76. Where is a NTC mounted in a module?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 1. How do I read IGBT module model types?
     

    Refer to "Part numbers" in the Semiconductors General Catalog.

  • 2. What is the meaning of each item in the IGBT data sheet?
     

    Refer to the description of terms in Application Manual Chapter 2-1.

  • 3. Can the voltage exceed IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) for a short time?
     

    Maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) is specified as the maximum rating in the relevant specifications. The voltage should never exceed this value.

  • 4. Is it always expedient to use the gate resistance (RG) value indicated in the data sheet?
     

    The optimum gate resistance value (RG) varies depending on the circuit configuration or operating environment used. The data sheet describes the recommended resistance value to minimize switching loss. Determine an appropriate gate resistance (RG) after considering the relevant switching loss, EMC/EMI, surge voltage, and unexpected characteristics such as vibration, without deviating from the descriptions contained in the data sheet.

  • 5. What ohm value is set for internal gate resistance (RG) in an IGBT module?
     

    "Refer to the data sheet where internal gate resistance (RG) values for the 6th-generation V-series and 7th-generation X-series IGBT module are described.
    Please contact us with a model type number if it is not shown in the 6th-generation data sheet or if it is a product prior to the 6th-generation (U-series, S-series)."

  • 6. Which terminal should be used to measure the collector-emitter voltage (VCE) when switching?
     

    Please measure at the main terminal of the product. If a terminal is separately specified for measurement in the data sheet, please use the specified terminal.

  • 7. What is the lowest operation temperature for an IGBT module?
     

    The minimum temperature is specified by the storage temperature (Tstg). Please consider that there will be a reduced device withstand voltage and peripheral component (capacitor, control circuit) characteristics under low temperature before use.

  • 8. Can an IPM operate at -40oC?
     

    Our IPM is designed with a lowest guaranteed operating temperature of Tc=-20oC. Operation below this temperature has not been evaluated, and any use below -20oC will void your warranty. At such temperature, there are concerns about possible malfunctions due to a lower device withstand voltage or reduced capacity of the used capacitor.

  • 9. Is there a temperature dependency in the IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES)?
     

    A lower temperature reduces the IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES). The data sheet describes the maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) under the condition of Tj=25oC. Refer to the technical information describing temperature dependency included in the technical documents under Design Support.

  • 10. What is the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature is the temperature at joints on a semiconductor chip.

  • 11. What is the acceptable range of case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    Refer to the "Maximum Ratings: Case temperature" section in the data sheet.

  • 12. What is the difference between Tj(max) and Tj(op)?
     

    The maximum allowable temperature for the chip during conventional continuous operation is specified in Tj(op). Please ensure the maximum chip temperature stays at or under Tj(op) during conventional continuous operation. The maximum allowable temperature for a chip during short-term overload or abnormal operation is specified inTj(max).

  • 13. How can we determine the dead-time?
     

    To prevent a short-circuit in the upper and lower arms, it is necessary to set an on-off timing delay between the several arms. During this time period both devices are switched off. The dead-time needs to be set so that it is generally longer than the switching time of the IGBT (toff max.).
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 14. Where can we obtain an RoHS Certificate of Conformity (CoC)?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 15. Are Fuji semiconductor parts compliant with REACH regulations?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 16. Have Fuji semiconductor parts an UL certification?
     

    Power semiconductor modules of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. have been certified with UL standard 1557, category code QQQX2 (File No. E82988). The relevant model types can be found on the UL website's (http://japan.ul.com/) Online Certifications Directory.

  • 17. What factors determine the value of thermal resistance Rth(j-c)?
     

    The thermal resistance value may differ even in the same rating, when comparing different families of products made by Fuji Electric or other companies. A low thermal resistance in a certain product may be due to a larger semiconductor chip size, or the use of a ceramic insulating substrate with good thermal conductivity.

  • 18. The parameter for thermal resistance given in the specification is described as ( per 1 device). What does it mean?
     

    1 device represents a value per arm (IGBT+FWD). Some models connect multiple chips per arm in parallel. This parallel-chip configuration is counted as one chip.

  • 19. What is the meaning of the given gate resistance RG value in the specification? Does this mean external resistance?
     

    It represents an external resistance. It excludes the module's built-in RG(int).

  • 20. What is RBSOA?
     

    RBSOA is an abbreviation of Reverse Bias Safety Operating Area. The data sheet contains a characteristic graph describing double the rated voltage and rated current under the condition of maximum continuous operation temperature Tj(op). It illustrates a range of VCE and IC where safe operation is maintained when IGBT is turning off. The operation can be repeated within the RBSOA range.

  • 1. What is an IGBT?
     

    It stands for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. It is a voltage-controlled device that has an insulated gate with an oxide insulating film. The gate structure is similar to a MOSFET. It combines the positive characteristics of a MOSFET and bipolar transistor. It is an indispensable component in a power conversion circuit for high-voltage and large-current applications. It is mainly used in consumer equipment such as air conditioners (a/c) or microwave ovens, industrial equipment such as elevators, and inverters for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV).

  • 2. Why is FWD required?
     

    Conventional IGBT elements are not capable of blocking a reverse-withstand voltage. When an inverter circuit is used to drive an inductive load like in a motor, the load current will continue flowing in the reverse direction (emitter to collector) at the time of switching. This may damage the IGBT. The IGBT is protected by a commutating load current in a diode (freewheeling diode: FWD) connected inversely in parallel.

  • 3. What is the difference between an IGBT and a MOSFET?
     

    An IGBT is a device that has a basic structure of a P-layer added to the drain side of a MOSFET. An IGBT is suited for large-current and high withstand-voltage applications. A MOSFET is suited for small-capacity and high-speed switching applications.

  • 4. What is a RB-IGBT?
     

    It stands for Reverse Blocking Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. Reverse-parallel connection of RB-IGBT enables both way switching. It is incorporated in AT-NPC (Advanced T-type Neutral Point Clamped) 3-level inverters, to increase the power conversion efficiency because there are less current passing elements.

  • 5. What does SiC mean?
     

    It stands for Silicon Carbide. SiC has a wider bandgap width compared to silicon, and is expected to become the next-generation power device material for high-temperature operation, high-speed switching, low power-loss, and high withstand-voltage applications.

  • 6. What is a module?
     

    A module is a package which contains several power semiconductor devices that form a bridge circuit, etc. A modul provides thermal and electrical contact as well as the electrical insulation maintained between the heat-radiation surface and the electric part. For this reason multiple modules can be placed on the same heat sink. Compared to setups that operate with multiple discrete products, the module can handle a larger current and is superior because it is small, lightweight, and easy to assemble.

  • 7. What does PIM mean?
     

    It stands for Power Integrated Module. A PIM is a module that is composed of a 3-phase rectifier circuit, 3-phase inverter circuit, and brake circuit. It is also called CIB (Converter Inverter Brake).

  • 8. What does IPM mean?
     

    It stands for Intelligent Power Module. An IPM is a module product, based on a 3-phase inverter circuit with a control IC that contains a gate driving circuit and other protection circuits. This product makes it easier to design peripheral circuits than conventional IGBT modules with external driver circuits. The following configurations are possible: 7in1 with a brake circuit, and 6in1 without brake circuit.

  • 9. What is a SiC hybrid module?
     

    This is a product that uses a SiC-SBD (Shottky Barrier Diode) as FWD component, with a combination of Si-IGBT. This combination reduces the losses by approximately 25% in comparison with conventional all-silicon chip products. SiC devices are the focus of attention as next-generation semiconductors that offer superior characteristics in areas such as high withstand-voltage, high-temperature, and high-frequency operations.

  • 10. What is the difference between PIM and IPM?
     

    PIM is a product that integrates a 3-phase converter circuit, brake circuit, and 3-phase inverter circuit into a single module. This leads to a compact main circuit design. IPM, on the other hand, offers an advantage of simple peripheral circuit designing, by use of its built-in control IC. This IC contains gate driving and protection circuits, in addition to brake and inverter circuits.

  • 11. What is the V-series of IGBT?
     

    This product series uses our company's 6th-generation IGBT chip set. This chip generation uses a trench gate structure that forms a three-dimensional gate over the silicon surface. It also contains a field stop structure (FS structure) to improve the characteristic of the element withstand voltage. These technologies made it possible to use a thinner silicon wafer which leads to a lower on-voltage, reduced switching losses, and improved switching speed control, compared to Fuji's 5th generation IGBT (U-series IGBT).

  • 12. How do I read IGBT module model types?
     

    Refer to "Part numbers" in the Semiconductors General Catalog.

  • 13. What is the meaning of each item in the IGBT data sheet?
     

    Refer to the description of terms in Application Manual Chapter 2-1.

  • 14. What is the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature is the temperature at joints on a semiconductor chip.

  • 15. What is the case temperature (Tc)?
     

    Case temperature (Tc) is the temperature on the module copper base surface right under a semiconductor chip where the temperature is the highest.

  • 16. What is the difference between Tj(max) and Tj(op)?
     

    The maximum allowable temperature for the chip during conventional continuous operation is specified in Tj(op). Please ensure the maximum chip temperature stays at or under Tj(op) during conventional continuous operation. The maximum allowable temperature for a chip during short-term overload or abnormal operation is specified inTj(max).

  • 17. What is a NTC?
     

    NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistor) is an electronic component whose resistance decreases while the temperature increases.

  • 18. What is the diode's I2t?
     

    I2t is a Joule-integral for overcurrent allowed within the range that does not result in element destruction. Overcurrent is defined in one cycle at commercially restricted half-waves (50, 60 Hz).

  • 19. Where are Fuji semiconductor products manufactured?
     

    The semiconductor products of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. are manufactured at its six sites in Japan (including Matsumoto Factory, Yamanashi Factory, Fuji Electric Power Semiconductor Co., Ltd., and Fuji Electric Tsugaru Semiconductor Co., Ltd.), and three overseas sites (Fuji Electric (ShenZhen) Co., Ltd., Fuji Electric Philippines, Inc., and Fuji Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.).

  • 20. Is there any quality difference between products made in Japan and those made overseas?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. enforces the same quality standard for product management at all locations, regardless of where the manufacturing sites are.

  • 21. What is EMI?
     

    EMI is an abbreviation of Electro Magnetic Interference. The word describes the negative effect caused on peripheral equipment by an electronic device, and it is also called emission. EMI consists of conductive noise that leaks to a power source, and radiation noise that is emitted as electromagnetic waves. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 22. What is EMS?
     

    EMS is an abbreviation of Electro Magnetic Susceptibility. The word describes an electronic device's capability and performance against surrounding interference, and it is also called immunity. It includes evaluation items such as electromagnetic waves, static electricity, and lightning surge. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 23. How long has Fuji Electric been manufacturing IGBT products?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. began manufacturing IGBTs in 1988, and now has nearly 30 years of history in supplying IGBT products to the market.

  • 24. What is an insulated substrate?
     

    The insulated substrate consists of a ceramic substrate, front-surface copper-foil pattern to create a circuit, and back-surface copper-foil to solder with a copper base. It is designed to electrically insulate between the electric part and the part for thermal dissipation. The ceramic substrate materials used are aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, etc.

  • 25. What is a press-fit pin?
     

    It is a pin type that allows PCB mounting without soldering. It is used in PIM and 6-Pack products. The time required for the assembly process is reduced as connection is completed by pressing an IGBT module over PCB's through-hole and applying pressure from the base side. Special press and press-in tools are required. We do not sell presses or tools.

  • 26. V-series IPM has VDA and VDN models of the same rating, but what is the difference between them?
     

    VDA and VDN use different material for their insulating substrates, resulting in separate thermal resistance values. The VDA type uses aluminum oxide, while the VDN type uses high heat-radiation material, with approximately 30% less thermal resistance than that of VDA. It is effective when achieving a lower Tj max. or longer ΔTj power cycle life expectancy.

  • 27. What is a bootstrap circuit?
     

    A bootstrap circuit is one that is composed of a control power supply to drive high-side IGBT. It is possible to have a single power supply as it does not require a transformer with multiple secondary windings. Its built-in bootstrap resistance and bootstrap diode (BSD) gives a small IPM to configure a bootstrap circuit simply by adding an external bootstrap capacitor.

  • 28. Is the IPM's input control signal high to switch the IGBT to on?
     

    IPM V-series input control signal is IGBT-on when set at Low. A small IPM's input control signal is IGBT-on when set at High.

  • 29. The parameter for thermal resistance given in the specification is described as ( per 1 device). What does it mean?
     

    1 device represents a value per arm (IGBT+FWD). Some models connect multiple chips per arm in parallel. This parallel-chip configuration is counted as one chip.

  • 30. What is RBSOA?
     

    RBSOA is an abbreviation of Reverse Bias Safety Operating Area. The data sheet contains a characteristic graph describing double the rated voltage and rated current under the condition of maximum continuous operation temperature Tj(op). It illustrates a range of VCE and IC where safe operation is maintained when IGBT is turning off. The operation can be repeated within the RBSOA range.

  • 31. What is SCSOA?
     

    SCSOA is an abbreviation of Short Circuit Safety Operating Area. During an incident with an inverter device, such as a load short-circuit, arm short-circuit, or ground fault, a current that is several times higher than the rated current flows in the IGBT. SCSOA is provided to protect the IGBT even during these instances. SCSOA has different characteristics depending on the generation or withstand voltage of IGBT. Refer to the technical documents of individual models.

  • 32. What types of noise are generated at an inverter unit that has a power semiconductor device built in?
     

    There are two types of noise: conductive noise (noise terminal voltage) and radiation noise. Conductive noise propagates over a conductor or earth wire in a main circuit. It is divided into two groups: normal mode and common mode. Radiation noise is generated within a device and emitted into the air because the device wiring or casing works as an antenna. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 33. How can we reduce conductive noise?
     

    "Conductive noise can be reduced through methods such as adding an LC filter on the AC power side, adding a ferrite core, or adjusting the gate resistance to suppress dv/dt at the time of switching.
    For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10."

  • 34. How can we reduce radiation noise?
     

    Radiation noise can be reduced through methods such as reducing the loop current area where noise is generated, or adjusting the gate resistance. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 1. Is it always expedient to use the gate resistance (RG) value indicated in the data sheet?
     

    The optimum gate resistance value (RG) varies depending on the circuit configuration or operating environment used. The data sheet describes the recommended resistance value to minimize switching loss. Determine an appropriate gate resistance (RG) after considering the relevant switching loss, EMC/EMI, surge voltage, and unexpected characteristics such as vibration, without deviating from the descriptions contained in the data sheet.

  • 2. How should the gate resistance (RG) be determined?
     

    The gate resistance value (RG) greatly impacts dv/dt, radiation noise, voltage/current surge, and switching loss. Please comprehensively determine an appropriate value that corresponds to the target figure of your actual design. As for reference, a recommended turn-on resistance value (RG(on)) is twice or higher than that of the standard value from datasheet, and a recommended turn-off resistance value (RG(off)) is one to two times that of the standard value.

  • 3. How can the surge voltage be reduced?
     

    A surge voltage is generated by high di/dt, and wiring inductance outside the module, at the time of switching (L*di/dt). Some of the ways to suppress this problem are as follows:
    (1) Add a protective circuit
    (2) Reduce di/dt by adjusting RG or -VGE
    (3) Reduce inductance by making the main circuit wiring thicker and shorter, and using a copper bar and parallel flat wiring
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 4. What ohm value is set for internal gate resistance (RG) in an IGBT module?
     

    "Refer to the data sheet where internal gate resistance (RG) values for the 6th-generation V-series and 7th-generation X-series IGBT module are described.
    Please contact us with a model type number if it is not shown in the 6th-generation data sheet or if it is a product prior to the 6th-generation (U-series, S-series)."

  • 5. What are the points we need to be aware of when determining the gate resistance (RG)?
     

    A larger gate resistance (RG) will increase switching loss, and make it more prone to generating an arm short circuit due to an insufficient dead-time. A smaller gate resistance (RG)may cause a sudden surge voltage. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapters 2-2.2 and 7-1.3.

  • 6. What is the reason for applying reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) between the gate and emitter?
     

    An insufficient reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) between the gate and emitter may cause the IGBT to mis-fire, leading to a short-circuit current. If the current is cut off the surge voltage and the generated loss may damage the product. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapters 4-3.3 and 7-1.2.

  • 7. Can application of a reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) on a gate-to-emitter be exempted in a case where only an FWD is used without an opposite IGBT, such as in a chopper circuit?
     

    Please apply a reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) of -5 V or higher (-15 V recommended; max. -20 V) between the gate and emitter in the IGBT that is not being used. An insufficient reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) may cause the IGBT to misfire due to dV/dt at the time of reverse-recovery of the FWD, resulting in damage.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-10.

  • 8. What precautions need to be considered when designing an IGBT drive circuit?
     

    Refer to Application Manual Chapter 7-5. It provides precautions regarding the photo-coupler's noise capability, wiring between the drive circuit and IGBT, and gate overvoltage protection.

  • 9. Which parameters have an impact to IGBT's short-circuit current?
     

    IGBT's short-circuit current is impacted by gate-to-emitter voltage VGE, junction temperature Tj, and switching voltage Vcc. Generally, a short-circuit current increases with a large VGE, low Tj, and large Vcc.

  • 10. How can we determine the dead-time?
     

    To prevent a short-circuit in the upper and lower arms, it is necessary to set an on-off timing delay between the several arms. During this time period both devices are switched off. The dead-time needs to be set so that it is generally longer than the switching time of the IGBT (toff max.).
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 11. How can we confirm the dead-time?
     

    One way to determine the validity of the dead-time setting is to verify the current on the direct current power line during non-loading time.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 12. What precautions do I need to be aware of when connecting IGBT modules in parallel?
     

    There are four basic precautions, shown below, when connecting IGBT modules in parallel:
    (1) Current unbalance control during steady operation
    (2) Current unbalance control at the time of switching
    (3) Gate drive circuit
    (4) Derating
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-3.5 and Chapter 8.

  • 13. Are there any measures to prevent misfiring by high dv/dt during the reverse recovery of the FWD?
     

    Some of the ways to prevent misfiring of an IGBT are as follows:
    (1) by adding a capacity component CGE to the area between the gate and emitter
    (2) by increasing -VGE
    (3) by increasing gate resistance (RG)
    The effectiveness of these measures will vary depending on the applicable gate circuit, so please verify thoroughly before applying them. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7-1.4.

  • 14. What is the meaning of the given gate resistance RG value in the specification? Does this mean external resistance?
     

    It represents an external resistance. It excludes the module's built-in RG(int).

  • 1. Where are Fuji semiconductor products manufactured?
     

    The semiconductor products of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. are manufactured at its six sites in Japan (including Matsumoto Factory, Yamanashi Factory, Fuji Electric Power Semiconductor Co., Ltd., and Fuji Electric Tsugaru Semiconductor Co., Ltd.), and three overseas sites (Fuji Electric (ShenZhen) Co., Ltd., Fuji Electric Philippines, Inc., and Fuji Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.).

  • 2. How do I verify the authenticity of products I have purchased online, etc.?
     

    Product warranty and support are provided if products have been purchased from our distributors or an authorized dealer. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 3. How do I get a sample?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 4. Is it possible to get a product which is not in the catalog? Does Fuji make customized products?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 5. How long has Fuji Electric been manufacturing IGBT products?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. began manufacturing IGBTs in 1988, and now has nearly 30 years of history in supplying IGBT products to the market.

  • 6. Where can we obtain an RoHS Certificate of Conformity (CoC)?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 7. Are Fuji semiconductor parts compliant with REACH regulations?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 8. Have Fuji semiconductor parts an UL certification?
     

    Power semiconductor modules of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. have been certified with UL standard 1557, category code QQQX2 (File No. E82988). The relevant model types can be found on the UL website's (http://japan.ul.com/) Online Certifications Directory.

  • 1. Can we apply an IGBT module directly to a heat sink?
     

    No, prior to using an IGBT module, please apply thermal grease (compound) on the surface of a heat sink and module before layering. This will reduce the contact thermal resistance. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 2. How should thermal grease (compound) be applied on an IGBT module?
     

    Thermal grease can be applied using either a roller or stencil mask. An inappropriate thermal grease thickness will negatively affect heat radiation to the heat sink. We strongly recommend using a stencil mask that enables a uniform thickness to be applied over the back surface of the module. For details on application methods, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction. An optimum outline drawing for each module is also available. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 3. What types of power cycle capability are available?
     

    The types of power cycle capability include the ΔTj power cycle (ΔTj-P/C) capability curve and the ΔTc power cycle (ΔTc-P/C) capability curve. We verify device life on two models, therefore please design a product life expectancy within these power cycle capabilities. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 4. How do I calculate the power cycle in cases where there are multiple temperature rise peaks?
     

    In cases where the temperature increases n-times per device operation cycle, we assign a power cycle life expectance count as PC(k=1, 2, 3, ..., n). PC(k) is the power cycle life for the k-th temperature rise. A combined power cycle life expectancy count can be expressed by the formula below.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 5. Is there any quality difference between products made in Japan and those made overseas?
     

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. enforces the same quality standard for product management at all locations, regardless of where the manufacturing sites are.

  • 6. How do I store semiconductor devices?
     

    The desired storage environment has a temperature range of 5 to 35oC, and humidity range of 45% to 75%. Avoid storage under load, and secure a location with little temperature fluctuation. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-8.

  • 7. What is the piece of black sponge pinned on the module terminals?
     

    The piece of black sponge is attached for protection. Please keep the sponge on the module at the time of storage.

  • 8. Is there a lifetime for IGBT modules?
     

    Yes. The main factors impacting the IGBT module's life expectancy are temperature gaps involving the element's junction temperature Tj, and increase and decrease of case temperature Tc. Refer to technical documents describing the relationship of ΔTj and ΔTc with the device life expectancy.

  • 9. Where can we obtain an RoHS Certificate of Conformity (CoC)?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 10. Are Fuji semiconductor parts compliant with REACH regulations?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 11. Have Fuji semiconductor parts an UL certification?
     

    Power semiconductor modules of Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. have been certified with UL standard 1557, category code QQQX2 (File No. E82988). The relevant model types can be found on the UL website's (http://japan.ul.com/) Online Certifications Directory.

  • 12. Is there ΔTc power cycle curve?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 13. What happens to IGBT modules in a case where an application exceeds the ΔTj power cycle capability?
     

    It will cause a separation of aluminum wire, or a crack in the solder under the chip. Thermal destruction will result from the current concentrating on the relevant part of the chip, or increased thermal resistance.

  • 1. How do I calculate IGBT losses?
     

    Fuji provides a free software to calculate the IGBT losses. The following steps can be followed to obtain the figure.
    (1) Download our Loss Simulator
    (2) Launch our Loss Simulator
    (3) Enter data on the chip series, circuit configuration, voltage rating, and current rating. Select your model type. Click ""Next""
    (4) Enter data on the circuit, PWM modulation scheme, and calculation conditions. Click ""Calculate""
    (5) The calculation result will be displayed
    For details, refer to the user manual.

  • 2. What functions do the IGBT Simulator have?
     

    The IGBT Simulator can estimate the power loss and temperature for a 3-phase 2-level inverter circuit, 3-phase 3-level inverter circuit, and chopper circuit of an IGBT and FWD. It can also calculate loss and temperature under variable inverter operation conditions such as output current and switching frequency. Changes in loss and temperature when the load continuously fluctuates, can also be obtained.

  • 3. How do I estimate the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature can be estimated based on generated losses and thermal resistance Rth(j-c). For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-2.1.
    We provide a free software to calculate IGBT's temperature at 2-level inverter, 3-level inverter, and chopper circuits. This software can be downloaded here.

  • 4. Are there any simulation models for the semiconductor products?
     

    A simulation model such as a SPICE model is not available.

  • 1. What is the lowest operation temperature for an IGBT module?
     

    The minimum temperature is specified by the storage temperature (Tstg). Please consider that there will be a reduced device withstand voltage and peripheral component (capacitor, control circuit) characteristics under low temperature before use.

  • 2. How do I calculate IGBT losses?
     

    Fuji provides a free software to calculate the IGBT losses. The following steps can be followed to obtain the figure.
    (1) Download our Loss Simulator
    (2) Launch our Loss Simulator
    (3) Enter data on the chip series, circuit configuration, voltage rating, and current rating. Select your model type. Click ""Next""
    (4) Enter data on the circuit, PWM modulation scheme, and calculation conditions. Click ""Calculate""
    (5) The calculation result will be displayed
    For details, refer to the user manual.

  • 3. What is the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature is the temperature at joints on a semiconductor chip.

  • 4. What is the case temperature (Tc)?
     

    Case temperature (Tc) is the temperature on the module copper base surface right under a semiconductor chip where the temperature is the highest.

  • 5. What is the acceptable range of case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    Refer to the "Maximum Ratings: Case temperature" section in the data sheet.

  • 6. How do I estimate the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature can be estimated based on generated losses and thermal resistance Rth(j-c). For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-2.1.
    We provide a free software to calculate IGBT's temperature at 2-level inverter, 3-level inverter, and chopper circuits. This software can be downloaded here.

  • 7. What is the difference between Tj(max) and Tj(op)?
     

    The maximum allowable temperature for the chip during conventional continuous operation is specified in Tj(op). Please ensure the maximum chip temperature stays at or under Tj(op) during conventional continuous operation. The maximum allowable temperature for a chip during short-term overload or abnormal operation is specified inTj(max).

  • 8. How do I measure the case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    The following illustrates an example of how to measure case temperature (Tc).
    One method is to make a groove on a copper base or a heat sink of an IGBT module to embed a thermocouple. Please fill the groove with highly thermally conductive paste to secure the thermocouple and attain even thermal diffusion.

  • 9. Where are the chips located internally?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 10. Can we apply an IGBT module directly to a heat sink?
     

    No, prior to using an IGBT module, please apply thermal grease (compound) on the surface of a heat sink and module before layering. This will reduce the contact thermal resistance. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 11. What are the recommended thermal conductivity and thickness for thermal grease?
     

    Recommended values are 0.92 W/m·K or higher for thermal conductivity, and approximately 100 μm thick after spreading thermal grease. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 12. Is there a recommended thermal grease that should be used?
     

    Refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 for details.

  • 13. How should thermal grease (compound) be applied on an IGBT module?
     

    Thermal grease can be applied using either a roller or stencil mask. An inappropriate thermal grease thickness will negatively affect heat radiation to the heat sink. We strongly recommend using a stencil mask that enables a uniform thickness to be applied over the back surface of the module. For details on application methods, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction. An optimum outline drawing for each module is also available. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 14. What thermal grease precautions should we be aware of?
     

    While thermal grease promotes thermal conduction to a fin, it has a thermal capacity itself. Applying too much grease will obstruct the heat radiation to fins. At the same time, applying too little will increase the contact thermal resistance because thermal grease will not have good contact in some spots between the fins and module for bonding. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 "Thermal paste application" and technical documents.

  • 15. What range is used for heat sink flatness as a reference?
     

    Guides to flatness values for a heat sink are 50 μm or less for 100 mm between screw mounting locations, and 10 μm or less for surface roughness. An excessive convex warp will cause an insulation breakdown, leading to a critical incident. An excessive concave warp will reduce heat radiation by creating a gap between the product and heat sink, which may lead to thermal destruction.

  • 16. Is the temperature Tj represented by the NTC temperature?
     

    They are not the same. When incorporating it in an IGBT module, NTC is positioned far from the chip to ensure insulation. This produces a temperature gap between them although NTC's temperature will follow that of chip's Tj.

  • 17. What is the temperature difference between Tj and NTC temperature?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 18. How do I calculate the power cycle in cases where there are multiple temperature rise peaks?
     

    In cases where the temperature increases n-times per device operation cycle, we assign a power cycle life expectance count as PC(k=1, 2, 3, ..., n). PC(k) is the power cycle life for the k-th temperature rise. A combined power cycle life expectancy count can be expressed by the formula below.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 19. How do I mount a module?
     

    Refer to IGBT module's Application Manual Chapter 6-3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 20. What factors determine the value of thermal resistance Rth(j-c)?
     

    The thermal resistance value may differ even in the same rating, when comparing different families of products made by Fuji Electric or other companies. A low thermal resistance in a certain product may be due to a larger semiconductor chip size, or the use of a ceramic insulating substrate with good thermal conductivity.

  • 21. Can I get a drawing of the internal chip layout to measure the case temperature TC?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 22. How works a stencil mask to apply thermal compound and can I purchase it from Fuji?
     

    A stencil mask is a 200 μm-thick, metal plate with multiple holes punched in the compound application area. A compound can be applied with a uniform thickness of 100 μm when clamping the stencil to a heat sink after application. We do not sell stencil masks but we can provide a mask drawing that corresponds to the relevant package.

  • 23. Where is a NTC mounted in a module?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 1. Why is FWD required?
     

    Conventional IGBT elements are not capable of blocking a reverse-withstand voltage. When an inverter circuit is used to drive an inductive load like in a motor, the load current will continue flowing in the reverse direction (emitter to collector) at the time of switching. This may damage the IGBT. The IGBT is protected by a commutating load current in a diode (freewheeling diode: FWD) connected inversely in parallel.

  • 2. What is the difference between an IGBT and a MOSFET?
     

    An IGBT is a device that has a basic structure of a P-layer added to the drain side of a MOSFET. An IGBT is suited for large-current and high withstand-voltage applications. A MOSFET is suited for small-capacity and high-speed switching applications.

  • 3. What is the difference between PIM and IPM?
     

    PIM is a product that integrates a 3-phase converter circuit, brake circuit, and 3-phase inverter circuit into a single module. This leads to a compact main circuit design. IPM, on the other hand, offers an advantage of simple peripheral circuit designing, by use of its built-in control IC. This IC contains gate driving and protection circuits, in addition to brake and inverter circuits.

  • 4. How do I select a module by the rated parameters?
     

    Regarding voltage and current rating, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-1 on "how to select an IGBT module". Before use, please verify that the voltage, current, temperature, and other factors stay within the maximum rating range. For support please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 5. Can the voltage exceed IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) for a short time?
     

    Maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) is specified as the maximum rating in the relevant specifications. The voltage should never exceed this value.

  • 6. Is it always expedient to use the gate resistance (RG) value indicated in the data sheet?
     

    The optimum gate resistance value (RG) varies depending on the circuit configuration or operating environment used. The data sheet describes the recommended resistance value to minimize switching loss. Determine an appropriate gate resistance (RG) after considering the relevant switching loss, EMC/EMI, surge voltage, and unexpected characteristics such as vibration, without deviating from the descriptions contained in the data sheet.

  • 7. How should the gate resistance (RG) be determined?
     

    The gate resistance value (RG) greatly impacts dv/dt, radiation noise, voltage/current surge, and switching loss. Please comprehensively determine an appropriate value that corresponds to the target figure of your actual design. As for reference, a recommended turn-on resistance value (RG(on)) is twice or higher than that of the standard value from datasheet, and a recommended turn-off resistance value (RG(off)) is one to two times that of the standard value.

  • 8. How can the surge voltage be reduced?
     

    A surge voltage is generated by high di/dt, and wiring inductance outside the module, at the time of switching (L*di/dt). Some of the ways to suppress this problem are as follows:
    (1) Add a protective circuit
    (2) Reduce di/dt by adjusting RG or -VGE
    (3) Reduce inductance by making the main circuit wiring thicker and shorter, and using a copper bar and parallel flat wiring
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 9. What ohm value is set for internal gate resistance (RG) in an IGBT module?
     

    "Refer to the data sheet where internal gate resistance (RG) values for the 6th-generation V-series and 7th-generation X-series IGBT module are described.
    Please contact us with a model type number if it is not shown in the 6th-generation data sheet or if it is a product prior to the 6th-generation (U-series, S-series)."

  • 10. What are the points we need to be aware of when determining the gate resistance (RG)?
     

    A larger gate resistance (RG) will increase switching loss, and make it more prone to generating an arm short circuit due to an insufficient dead-time. A smaller gate resistance (RG)may cause a sudden surge voltage. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapters 2-2.2 and 7-1.3.

  • 11. Which terminal should be used to measure the collector-emitter voltage (VCE) when switching?
     

    Please measure at the main terminal of the product. If a terminal is separately specified for measurement in the data sheet, please use the specified terminal.

  • 12. What is the reason for applying reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) between the gate and emitter?
     

    An insufficient reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) between the gate and emitter may cause the IGBT to mis-fire, leading to a short-circuit current. If the current is cut off the surge voltage and the generated loss may damage the product. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapters 4-3.3 and 7-1.2.

  • 13. Can application of a reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) on a gate-to-emitter be exempted in a case where only an FWD is used without an opposite IGBT, such as in a chopper circuit?
     

    Please apply a reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) of -5 V or higher (-15 V recommended; max. -20 V) between the gate and emitter in the IGBT that is not being used. An insufficient reverse-bias voltage (-VGE) may cause the IGBT to misfire due to dV/dt at the time of reverse-recovery of the FWD, resulting in damage.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-10.

  • 14. What precautions need to be considered when designing an IGBT drive circuit?
     

    Refer to Application Manual Chapter 7-5. It provides precautions regarding the photo-coupler's noise capability, wiring between the drive circuit and IGBT, and gate overvoltage protection.

  • 15. What is the lowest operation temperature for an IGBT module?
     

    The minimum temperature is specified by the storage temperature (Tstg). Please consider that there will be a reduced device withstand voltage and peripheral component (capacitor, control circuit) characteristics under low temperature before use.

  • 16. Can an IPM operate at -40oC?
     

    Our IPM is designed with a lowest guaranteed operating temperature of Tc=-20oC. Operation below this temperature has not been evaluated, and any use below -20oC will void your warranty. At such temperature, there are concerns about possible malfunctions due to a lower device withstand voltage or reduced capacity of the used capacitor.

  • 17. Is there a temperature dependency in the IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES)?
     

    A lower temperature reduces the IGBT's maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES). The data sheet describes the maximum collector-emitter voltage (VCES) under the condition of Tj=25oC. Refer to the technical information describing temperature dependency included in the technical documents under Design Support.

  • 18. How do I calculate IGBT losses?
     

    Fuji provides a free software to calculate the IGBT losses. The following steps can be followed to obtain the figure.
    (1) Download our Loss Simulator
    (2) Launch our Loss Simulator
    (3) Enter data on the chip series, circuit configuration, voltage rating, and current rating. Select your model type. Click ""Next""
    (4) Enter data on the circuit, PWM modulation scheme, and calculation conditions. Click ""Calculate""
    (5) The calculation result will be displayed
    For details, refer to the user manual.

  • 19. What functions do the IGBT Simulator have?
     

    The IGBT Simulator can estimate the power loss and temperature for a 3-phase 2-level inverter circuit, 3-phase 3-level inverter circuit, and chopper circuit of an IGBT and FWD. It can also calculate loss and temperature under variable inverter operation conditions such as output current and switching frequency. Changes in loss and temperature when the load continuously fluctuates, can also be obtained.

  • 20. What is the acceptable range of case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    Refer to the "Maximum Ratings: Case temperature" section in the data sheet.

  • 21. How do I estimate the junction temperature (Tj)?
     

    Junction temperature can be estimated based on generated losses and thermal resistance Rth(j-c). For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-2.1.
    We provide a free software to calculate IGBT's temperature at 2-level inverter, 3-level inverter, and chopper circuits. This software can be downloaded here.

  • 22. What is the difference between Tj(max) and Tj(op)?
     

    The maximum allowable temperature for the chip during conventional continuous operation is specified in Tj(op). Please ensure the maximum chip temperature stays at or under Tj(op) during conventional continuous operation. The maximum allowable temperature for a chip during short-term overload or abnormal operation is specified inTj(max).

  • 23. How do I measure the case temperature (Tc) for an IGBT module?
     

    The following illustrates an example of how to measure case temperature (Tc).
    One method is to make a groove on a copper base or a heat sink of an IGBT module to embed a thermocouple. Please fill the groove with highly thermally conductive paste to secure the thermocouple and attain even thermal diffusion.

  • 24. Where are the chips located internally?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 25. Can we apply an IGBT module directly to a heat sink?
     

    No, prior to using an IGBT module, please apply thermal grease (compound) on the surface of a heat sink and module before layering. This will reduce the contact thermal resistance. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 26. What are the recommended thermal conductivity and thickness for thermal grease?
     

    Recommended values are 0.92 W/m·K or higher for thermal conductivity, and approximately 100 μm thick after spreading thermal grease. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 27. Is there a recommended thermal grease that should be used?
     

    Refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 for details.

  • 28. How should thermal grease (compound) be applied on an IGBT module?
     

    Thermal grease can be applied using either a roller or stencil mask. An inappropriate thermal grease thickness will negatively affect heat radiation to the heat sink. We strongly recommend using a stencil mask that enables a uniform thickness to be applied over the back surface of the module. For details on application methods, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 or Mounting Instruction. An optimum outline drawing for each module is also available. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 29. What thermal grease precautions should we be aware of?
     

    While thermal grease promotes thermal conduction to a fin, it has a thermal capacity itself. Applying too much grease will obstruct the heat radiation to fins. At the same time, applying too little will increase the contact thermal resistance because thermal grease will not have good contact in some spots between the fins and module for bonding. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 6-3.3 "Thermal paste application" and technical documents.

  • 30. What range is used for heat sink flatness as a reference?
     

    Guides to flatness values for a heat sink are 50 μm or less for 100 mm between screw mounting locations, and 10 μm or less for surface roughness. An excessive convex warp will cause an insulation breakdown, leading to a critical incident. An excessive concave warp will reduce heat radiation by creating a gap between the product and heat sink, which may lead to thermal destruction.

  • 31. Is the temperature Tj represented by the NTC temperature?
     

    They are not the same. When incorporating it in an IGBT module, NTC is positioned far from the chip to ensure insulation. This produces a temperature gap between them although NTC's temperature will follow that of chip's Tj.

  • 32. What is the temperature difference between Tj and NTC temperature?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 33. What types of power cycle capability are available?
     

    The types of power cycle capability include the ΔTj power cycle (ΔTj-P/C) capability curve and the ΔTc power cycle (ΔTc-P/C) capability curve. We verify device life on two models, therefore please design a product life expectancy within these power cycle capabilities. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 34. How do I calculate the power cycle in cases where there are multiple temperature rise peaks?
     

    In cases where the temperature increases n-times per device operation cycle, we assign a power cycle life expectance count as PC(k=1, 2, 3, ..., n). PC(k) is the power cycle life for the k-th temperature rise. A combined power cycle life expectancy count can be expressed by the formula below.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 11.

  • 35. Which parameters have an impact to IGBT's short-circuit current?
     

    IGBT's short-circuit current is impacted by gate-to-emitter voltage VGE, junction temperature Tj, and switching voltage Vcc. Generally, a short-circuit current increases with a large VGE, low Tj, and large Vcc.

  • 36. How can we determine the dead-time?
     

    To prevent a short-circuit in the upper and lower arms, it is necessary to set an on-off timing delay between the several arms. During this time period both devices are switched off. The dead-time needs to be set so that it is generally longer than the switching time of the IGBT (toff max.).
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 37. How can we confirm the dead-time?
     

    One way to determine the validity of the dead-time setting is to verify the current on the direct current power line during non-loading time.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7.

  • 38. Does QG show temperature dependence?
     

    There is no dependency.

  • 39. Does Cies show temperature dependence?
     

    There is no dependency.

  • 40. What types of snubber circuit are available?
     

    There are two types of snubber circuits. The first type is implemented between the DC power supply busbars and is called lump snubber. The second type is called individual snubber ciruit and is connected to each IGBT.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 41. How is the capacitor C of the snubber circuit to be determined?
     

    The necessary capacity for a snubber capacitor can be obtained with the following formula.
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 5.

  • 42. How do I mount a module?
     

    Refer to IGBT module's Application Manual Chapter 6-3 or Mounting Instruction.

  • 43. Can IGBT modules be used in parallel?
     

    Some IGBT module models can be connected in parallel, while other models cannot. Please contact our company or your local distributor.

  • 44. What precautions do I need to be aware of when connecting IGBT modules in parallel?
     

    There are four basic precautions, shown below, when connecting IGBT modules in parallel:
    (1) Current unbalance control during steady operation
    (2) Current unbalance control at the time of switching
    (3) Gate drive circuit
    (4) Derating
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-3.5 and Chapter 8.

  • 45. Are there any simulation models for the semiconductor products?
     

    A simulation model such as a SPICE model is not available.

  • 46. How do I verify the authenticity of products I have purchased online, etc.?
     

    Product warranty and support are provided if products have been purchased from our distributors or an authorized dealer. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 47. How do I get a sample?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 48. Is it possible to get a product which is not in the catalog? Does Fuji make customized products?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 49. How do I store semiconductor devices?
     

    The desired storage environment has a temperature range of 5 to 35oC, and humidity range of 45% to 75%. Avoid storage under load, and secure a location with little temperature fluctuation. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-8.

  • 50. What do we need to be aware of when soldering an IGBT module?
     

    Avoid soldering under excessive temperature. Soldering condition have to be within specification value. Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd or your local distributor. It may result in package degradation.

  • 51. Are there any measures to prevent misfiring by high dv/dt during the reverse recovery of the FWD?
     

    Some of the ways to prevent misfiring of an IGBT are as follows:
    (1) by adding a capacity component CGE to the area between the gate and emitter
    (2) by increasing -VGE
    (3) by increasing gate resistance (RG)
    The effectiveness of these measures will vary depending on the applicable gate circuit, so please verify thoroughly before applying them. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 7-1.4.

  • 52. What is the piece of black sponge pinned on the module terminals?
     

    The piece of black sponge is attached for protection. Please keep the sponge on the module at the time of storage.

  • 53. Is there any quick way to determine the quality of IGBT before mounting?
     

    You can verify the IGBT by checking the leakage current between G and E, and C and E, using a transistor curve tracer (CT). Simple failure diagnosis can also be done using a voltage, resistance tester in place of a CT. For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 4-2.

  • 54. What are countermeasures against static electricity when an IGBT module is used?
     

    (1) Discharge any static electricity by grounding through a high-capacity resistor, and use a conductive mat that has been grounded
    (2) Hold the package body without directly touching the IGBT module terminals (especially control terminal)
    (3) Ground tools such as a soldering tip, at an adequately low resistance
    (4) Protect a control terminal using conductive material such as IC foam
    For details, refer to Application Manual Chapter 3-2.

  • 55. Is there a lifetime for IGBT modules?
     

    Yes. The main factors impacting the IGBT module's life expectancy are temperature gaps involving the element's junction temperature Tj, and increase and decrease of case temperature Tc. Refer to technical documents describing the relationship of ΔTj and ΔTc with the device life expectancy.

  • 56. How do I read a lot number?
     

    The first digit represents the year of manufacture, the second digit is the month of manufacture, and the remaining 3 to 4 digits are the lot number.

  • 57. How do I handle a terminal when IPM's ALM terminal is not used?
     

    Pull up the ALM terminal to VCC to stabilize electric potential.

  • 58. How do I handle a terminal when IPM's brake circuit is not used?
     

    Pull up the VinDB terminal to VCC to stabilize electric potential.

  • 59. Is there an upper limit of switching frequency for an IGBT?
     

    The switching frequency (carrier frequency) is not defined in specifications. A higher frequency will increase the switching loss, leading to a problem with the junction temperature. The device will be operable under the absolute maximum rated temperature; a frequency of 15 kHz or less should be used for V-series IGBT module. For a welding device or medical equipment it might be necessary to use switching frequencies of 20 kHz or higher, therefore we recommend a high-speed standard 2in1 module or W-series discrete IBGT.

  • 60. Is there any recommended connector for IPM's control terminal?
     

    Connectors compatible with V-IPM series terminal shapes (by HIROSE ELECTRIC CO., LTD.) are on the market.
    P630: MA49-19S-2.54DSA, MA49-19S-2.54DSA(01)
    P631: MDF7-25S-2.54DSA
    Please contact HIROSE ELECTRIC CO., LTD. to purchase the relevant connector or verify reliability.

  • 61. What type of compatible female terminal (tab terminal) should we choose for a standard package control terminal?
     

    The compatible tab is the 110 series. Please select a tab terminal which has the tab dimensions of 2.8 mm width, and 0.5 mm plate thickness. Relevant products are available on the market from Tyco Electronics Japan G.K., J.S.T. MFG. CO., LTD., and NICHIFU Co., Ltd. Please contact any of these companies for details.

  • 62. What is a press-fit pin?
     

    It is a pin type that allows PCB mounting without soldering. It is used in PIM and 6-Pack products. The time required for the assembly process is reduced as connection is completed by pressing an IGBT module over PCB's through-hole and applying pressure from the base side. Special press and press-in tools are required. We do not sell presses or tools.

  • 63. What is a bootstrap circuit?
     

    A bootstrap circuit is one that is composed of a control power supply to drive high-side IGBT. It is possible to have a single power supply as it does not require a transformer with multiple secondary windings. Its built-in bootstrap resistance and bootstrap diode (BSD) gives a small IPM to configure a bootstrap circuit simply by adding an external bootstrap capacitor.

  • 64. Is the IPM's input control signal high to switch the IGBT to on?
     

    IPM V-series input control signal is IGBT-on when set at Low. A small IPM's input control signal is IGBT-on when set at High.

  • 65. What is the meaning of the given gate resistance RG value in the specification? Does this mean external resistance?
     

    It represents an external resistance. It excludes the module's built-in RG(int).

  • 66. What is RBSOA?
     

    RBSOA is an abbreviation of Reverse Bias Safety Operating Area. The data sheet contains a characteristic graph describing double the rated voltage and rated current under the condition of maximum continuous operation temperature Tj(op). It illustrates a range of VCE and IC where safe operation is maintained when IGBT is turning off. The operation can be repeated within the RBSOA range.

  • 67. What is SCSOA?
     

    SCSOA is an abbreviation of Short Circuit Safety Operating Area. During an incident with an inverter device, such as a load short-circuit, arm short-circuit, or ground fault, a current that is several times higher than the rated current flows in the IGBT. SCSOA is provided to protect the IGBT even during these instances. SCSOA has different characteristics depending on the generation or withstand voltage of IGBT. Refer to the technical documents of individual models.

  • 68. Is there ΔTc power cycle curve?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 69. What types of noise are generated at an inverter unit that has a power semiconductor device built in?
     

    There are two types of noise: conductive noise (noise terminal voltage) and radiation noise. Conductive noise propagates over a conductor or earth wire in a main circuit. It is divided into two groups: normal mode and common mode. Radiation noise is generated within a device and emitted into the air because the device wiring or casing works as an antenna. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 70. How can we reduce conductive noise?
     

    "Conductive noise can be reduced through methods such as adding an LC filter on the AC power side, adding a ferrite core, or adjusting the gate resistance to suppress dv/dt at the time of switching.
    For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10."

  • 71. How can we reduce radiation noise?
     

    Radiation noise can be reduced through methods such as reducing the loop current area where noise is generated, or adjusting the gate resistance. For details, refer to IGBT's Application Manual Chapter 10.

  • 72. Can I get a drawing of the internal chip layout to measure the case temperature TC?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.

  • 73. How works a stencil mask to apply thermal compound and can I purchase it from Fuji?
     

    A stencil mask is a 200 μm-thick, metal plate with multiple holes punched in the compound application area. A compound can be applied with a uniform thickness of 100 μm when clamping the stencil to a heat sink after application. We do not sell stencil masks but we can provide a mask drawing that corresponds to the relevant package.

  • 74. What happens to IGBT modules in a case where an application exceeds the ΔTj power cycle capability?
     

    It will cause a separation of aluminum wire, or a crack in the solder under the chip. Thermal destruction will result from the current concentrating on the relevant part of the chip, or increased thermal resistance.

  • 75. Where is a NTC mounted in a module?
     

    Please contact Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. or your local distributor.